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Chicken-Leg Confit with Potatoes and Escarole


Save the extra chicken-infused olive oil for all your roasted vegetable needs or to make this dish a second time.

Ingredients

  • 2 chicken legs (thigh and drumstick)
  • Kosher salt, freshly ground pepper
  • 2 large shallots, unpeeled, quartered
  • 1 head of garlic, unpeeled, halved crosswise
  • 10 ounces fingerling potatoes
  • 1 small head of escarole, leaves torn into bite-size pieces
  • 1 tablespoon finely grated lemon zest
  • 2 tablespoons fresh lemon juice

Recipe Preparation

  • Preheat oven to 275°. Season chicken legs with salt and pepper on both sides and nestle into a 1½-qt. baking dish. Arrange shallots, garlic, and 6 thyme sprigs around chicken and pour oil over. Bake until chicken is cooked through and tender and shallots and garlic have started to caramelize, 2–2½ hours.

  • Meanwhile, cook potatoes in a medium pot of boiling salted water until tender, 15–20 minutes. Drain and set aside.

  • Remove chicken from oven. Pour off infused oil, reserving 5 Tbsp. (save remaining oil for another use). Heat 2 Tbsp. infused oil in a large skillet over medium-high. Carefully transfer chicken to skillet, arranging skin side down. Cook, undisturbed, until skin is golden brown and crisp, about 5 minutes. Return chicken to dish, placing skin side up.

  • Heat 2 Tbsp. infused oil in same skillet (no need to wipe it out) and add potatoes and remaining 2 thyme sprigs. Using the back of a wooden spoon or spatula, lightly crush potatoes to flatten slightly. Season with salt and pepper and cook, tossing occasionally, until potatoes are well browned and crisp on all sides (some pieces will fall off and get extra-brown; you want this!), 8–10 minutes. Transfer to a medium bowl.

  • Toss escarole in another medium bowl with lemon zest, lemon juice, and 1 Tbsp. infused oil; season with salt and pepper. Serve chicken in baking dish (with all those shallots and garlic) with escarole and potatoes alongside.

  • Do Ahead: Chicken can be cooked (but not crisped) 2 days ahead; reheat in low oven before crisping. Potatoes can be boiled 2 days ahead; cover and chill.

Nutritional Content

Calories (kcal) 900 Fat (g) 59 Saturated Fat (g) 9 Cholesterol (mg) 240 Carbohydrates (g) 37 Dietary Fiber (g) 12 Total Sugars (g) 3 Protein (g) 57 Sodium (mg) 320Reviews Section

By Berni Hart June 21, 2017 | Apple Vinegar | 0 comments

It’s time to dig out the slow cooker and make the most of cheaper cuts of meat. Get them chugging away early in the day, so that by dinnertime the house is filled with gorgeous savoury aromas and you’ll have everyone clamouring around. Ingredients 2.9 kg pork shoulder on the bone.


French–English Glossary

For many diners, the restaurant menu can present a confusing and intimidating barrier to the pleasures of dining out. The French language, of course, is no help with so many sound-alike words. It is so easy to confuse tourteau (crab) with tortue (turtle), ail (garlic) with aile (a poultry wing), chevreau (young goat) with chevreuil (venison).
The variety of fish and shellfish found in France’s waters can be equally confusing, particularly when one is faced with a multitude of regional or local names given to each species. The large, meaty monkfish, for example, might be called baudroie, lotte, or gigot de mer depending upon the region or the whim of the chef.
In preparing this glossary, I have tried to limit the list to contemporary terms, making this a practical guide for today’s traveler in France. Translations are generally offered for those dishes, foods, and menus, in markets, expressions or terms phrases one is most likely to encounter on menus and in shops. I have also added regional terms one might not find explained elsewhere.

A point: cooked medium rare.
Abat(s): organ meat(s).
Abati(s): giblet(s) of poultry or game fowl.
Abbacchio: young lamb, specialty of Corsica.
Abondance: firm thick wheel of cow’s-milk cheese from the Savoie, a département in the Alps.
Abricot: apricot.
Acacia: the acacia tree, the blossoms of which are used for making fritters also honey made from the blossom.
Achatine: land snail, or escargot, imported from China and Indonesia less prized than other varieties.
Addition: bill.
Affamé: starving.
Affinage: process of aging cheese.
Affiné: aged, as with cheese.
Agneau (de lait): lamb (young, milk-fed).
Agneau chilindron: sauté of lamb with potatoes and garlic, specialty of the Basque country.
Agneau de Pauillac: breed of lamb from the southwest.
Agnelet: baby milk-fed lamb.
Agnelle: ewe lamb.
Agrume(s): citrus fruit(s).
Aïado: roast lamb shoulder stuffed with parsley, chervil, and garlic.
Aiglefin: aigrefin, églefin: small fresh haddock, a type of cod.
Aïgo bouido: garlic soup, served with oil, over slices of bread a specialty of Provence.
Aïgo saou: “water-salt” in Provençal a fish soup that includes, of course, water and salt, plus a mixture of small white fish, onions, potatoes, tomatoes, garlic, herbs, and olive oil specialty of Provence.
Aigre: bitter sour.
Aigre-doux: sweet and sour.
Aigrelette, sauce: a type of tart sauce.
Aiguillette: a long, thin slice of poultry, meat, or fish. Also, top part of beef rump.
Ail: garlic.
Ail des ours: (Allium Ursinum) Wild garlic - also known as ramsons, buckrams, broad-leaved garlic, wood garlic, bear leek or bear's garlic
Aile: wing of poultry or game bird.
Aile et cuisse: used to describe white breast meat (aile) and dark thigh meat (cuisse), usually of chicken.
Aillade: garlic sauce also, dishes based on garlic.
Aillé: with garlic.
Aillet: shoot of mild winter baby garlic, a specialty of the Poitou-Charentes region along the Atlantic coast.
Aïoli, ailloli: garlic mayonnaise. Also, salt cod, hard-cooked eggs, boiled snails, and vegetables served with garlic mayonnaise specialty of Provence.
Airelle: wild cranberry.
Aisy cendré: thick disc of cow’s-milk cheese, washed with eau-de-vie and patted with wood ashes also called cendre d’aisy: a specialty of Burgundy.
Albuféra: béchamel sauce with sweet peppers, prepared with chicken stock instead of milk classic sauce for poultry.
Algue(s): seaweed.
Aligot: mashed potatoes with tomme (the fresh curds used in making Cantal cheese) and garlic specialty of the Auvergne.
Alisier, alizier: eau-de-vie with the taste of bitter almonds, made with the wild red serviceberries that grow in the forests of Alsace.
Allumette: “match” puff pastry strips also fried matchstick potatoes.
Alose: shad, a spring river fish plentiful in the Loire and Gironde rivers.
Alouette: lark.
Aloyau: loin area of beef beef sirloin, butcher’s cut that includes the rump and contre-filet.
Alsacienne, à l’: in the style of Alsace, often including sauerkraut, sausage, or foie gras.
Amande: almond.
Amande de mer: smooth-shelled shellfish, like a small clam, with a sweet, almost almond flavor.
Amandine: with almonds.
Ambroisie: ambrosia.
Amer: bitter as in unsweetened chocolate.
Américaine, Amoricaine: sauce of white wine, Cognac, tomatoes, and butter.
Ami du Chambertin: “friend of Chambertin wine” moist and buttery short cylinder of cow’s milk cheese with a rust-colored rind, made near the village of Gevrey-Chambertin in Burgundy. Similar to Époisses cheese.
Amourette(s): spinal bone marrow of calf or ox.
Amuse-bouche or amuse gueule: “amuse the mouth” appetizer.
Ananas: pineapple.
Anchoïade: sauce that is a blend of olive oil, anchovies, and garlic, usually served with raw vegeta-bles specialty of Provence also, paste of anchovies and garlic, spread on toast.
Anchois (de Collioure): anchovy (prized salt-cured anchovy from Collioure, a port town near the Spanish border of the Languedoc), fished in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean.
Ancienne, à l’: in the old style.
Andouille: large smoked chitterling (tripe) sausage, usually served cold.
Andouillette: small chitterling (tripe) sausage, usually served grilled.
Aneth: dill.
Ange à cheval: “angel on horseback” grilled bacon-wrapped oyster.
Anglaise, à l’: English style, plainly cooked.
Anguille (au vert): eel (poached in herb sauce).
Anis: anise or aniseed.
Anis étoilé: star anise also called badiane.
AOC: see Appellation d’origine contrôlée.
Apéritif: a before-dinner drink that stimulates the appetite, usually somewhat sweet or mildly bitter.
Appellation d’origine contrôlée (AOC): specific definition of a particular cheese, butter, fruit, wine, or poultry – once passed down from generation to generation, now recognized by law – regulating the animal breed or variety of fruit, the zone of production, production techniques, composition of the product, its physical characteristics, and its specific attributes.
Arachide (huile d’ pâté d’): peanut (oil butter).
Araignée de mer: spider crab.
Arbousier (miel d’): trailing arbutus, small evergreen shrubby tree of the heather family, also called strawberry tree, ground laurel and madrona tree with strawberry-like fruit dotted with tiny bumps (honey of). Used for making liqueurs, jellies, and jams.
Arc en ciel (truite): rainbow (trout).
Ardennaise, à l’: in the style of the Ardennes, a département in northern France generally a dish with juniper berries.
Ardi gasna: Basque name for sheep’s-milk cheese.
Ardoise: blackboard bistros often use a blackboard to list specialties in place of a printed menu.
Arête: fish bone.
Arlésienne, à l’: in the style of Arles, a town in Provence with tomatoes, onions, eggplant, potatoes, rice, and sometimes olives.
Armagnac: brandy from the Armagnac area of Southwestern France.
Aromate: aromatic herb, vegetable, or flavoring.
Arômes à la gêne: generic name for a variety of tangy, lactic cheeses of the Lyon area that have been steeped in gêne, or dry marc, the dried grape skins left after grapes are pressed for wine. Can be of cow’s milk, goat’s milk, or a mixture.
Arosé(e): sprinkled, basted, moistened with liquid.
Arpajon: a town in the Ile-de-France dried bean capital of France a dish containing dried beans.
Artichaut (violet): artichoke (small purple) (camus) snub-nosed.
Artichaut à la Barigoule: in original form, artichokes cooked with mushrooms and oil also, artichoke stuffed with ham, onion, and garlic, browned in oil with onions and bacon, then cooked in water or white wine specialty of Provence.
Asperge (violette): asparagus (purple-tipped asparagus, a specialty of the Côte-d’Azur).
Assaisonné: seasoned seasoned with.
Assiette anglaise: assorted cold meats, usually served as a first course.
Assiette de pêcheur: assorted fish platter.
Assoiffé: parched, thirsty.
Assorti(e): assorted.
Aubergine: eggplant.
Aulx: plural of ail (garlic).
Aumônière: “beggar’s purse” thin crêpe, filled and tied like a bundle.
Aurore: tomato and cream sauce.
Auvergnat(e): in the style of the Auvergne often with cabbage, sausage, and bacon.
Aveline: hazelnut or filbert, better known as noisette.
Avocat: avocado.
Avoine: oat.
Axoa: a dish of ground veal, onions, and the local fresh chilies, piment d’Espelette specialty of the Basque region.
Azyme, pain: unleavened bread matzo.

Baba au rhum: sponge cake soaked in rum syrup.
Badiane: star anise.
Baeckeoffe, baekaoffa, backaofa, backenoff: “baker’s oven” stew of wine, beef, lamb, pork, potatoes, and onions specialty of Alsace.
Bagna caudà: sauce of anchovies, olive oil, and garlic, for dipping raw vegetables specialty of Nice.
Baguette: “wand” classic long, thin loaf of bread.
Baguette au levain or à l’ancienne: sourdough baguette.
Baie: berry.
Baie rose: pink peppercorn.
Baigné: bathed.
Ballotine: usually poultry boned, stuffed, and rolled.
Banane: banana.
Banon: village in the Alps of Provence, source of dried chestnut leaves traditionally used to wrap goat cheese, which was washed with eau-de-vie and aged for several months today refers to various goat’s-milk cheese or mixed goat- and cow’s-milk cheese from the region, sometimes wrapped in fresh green or dried brown chestnut leaves and tied with raffia.
Bar: ocean fish, known as loup on the Mediterranean coast, louvine or loubine in the southwest, and barreau in Brittany similar to sea bass.
Barbouillade: stuffed eggplant, or an eggplant stew also, a combination of beans and artichokes.
Barbue: brill, a flatfish related to turbot, found in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean.
Barder: to cover poultry or meat with strips of uncured bacon, to add moisture while cooking.
Baron: hindquarters of lamb, including both legs.
Barquette: “small boat” pastry shaped like a small boat.
Basilic: basil.
Basquaise, à la: Basque style usually with ham or tomatoes or red peppers.
Bâtard, pain: “bastard bread” traditional long, thin white loaf, larger than a baguette.
Batavia: salad green, a broad, flat-leafed lettuce.
Bâton: small white wand of bread, smaller than a baguette.
Bâtonnet: garnish of vegetables cut into small sticks.
Baudroie: in Provence, the name for monkfish or anglerfish, the large, firm-fleshed ocean fish also known as lotte and gigot de mer also a specialty of Provence, a fish soup that includes potatoes, onions, fresh mushrooms, garlic, fresh or dried orange zest, artichokes, tomatoes, and herbs.
Bavaroise: cold dessert a rich custard made with cream and gelatin.
Bavette: skirt steak.
Baveuse: “drooling” method of cooking an omelet so that it remains moist and juicy.
Béarnaise: tarragon-flavored sauce of egg yolks, butter, shallots, white wine, vinegar, and herbs.
Béatille: “tidbit” dish combining various organ meats.
Bécasse: small bird, a woodcock.
Bécassine: small bird, a snipe.
Béchamel: white sauce, made with butter, flour, and milk, usually flavored with onion, bay leaf, pepper, and nutmeg.
Beignet: fritter or doughnut.
Beignet de fleur de courgette: batter-fried zucchini blossom native to Provence and the Mediterranean, now popular all over France.
Belle Hélène (poire): classic dessert of chilled poached fruit (pear), served on ice cream and topped with hot chocolate sauce.
Bellevue, en: classic presentation of whole fish, usually in aspic on a platter.
Belon: river in Brittany identified with a prized flat-shelled (plate) oyster.
Belondines: Brittany creuses, or crinkle-shelled oysters that are affinées or finished off in the Belon river.
Berawecka, bierewecke, bireweck, birewecka: dense, moist Christmas fruit bread stuffed with dried pears, figs, and nuts specialty of Kaysersberg, a village in Alsace.
Bercy: fish stock-based sauce thickened with flour and butter and flavored with white wine and shallots.
Bergamot (thé a la bergamote): name for both a variety of orange and of pear (earl grey tea).
Berrichonne: garnish of bruised cabbage, glazed baby onions, chestnuts, and lean bacon named for the old province of Berry.
Betterave: beet.
Beurre: butter.
blanc: classic reduced sauce of vinegar white wine, shallots, and butter.
cru: raw cream butter.
de Montpellier: classic butter sauce seasoned with olive oil, herbs, garlic, and anchovies.
demi-sel: butter (lightly salted).
des Charentes: finest French butter, from the region of Poitou-Charentes along the Atlantic coast.
du cru: butter given the appellation d’origine contrôlée pedigree.
Echiré: brand of the finest French butter, preferred by French chefs, with an AOC pedigree, from the region of Poitou-Charentes along the Atlantic coast.
noir: sauce of browned butter, lemon juice or vinegar, parsley, and sometimes capers tradi-tionally served with raie, or skate.
noisette: lightly browned butter.
vierge: whipped butter sauce with salt, pepper, and lemon juice.
Bibelskäs, bibbelskäse: fresh cheese seasoned with horseradish, herbs, and spices specialty of Alsace.
Biche: female deer.
Bien cuit(e): cooked well done.
Bière (en bouteille, à la pression): beer (bottled, on tap).
Bifteck: steak.
Bigarade: orange sauce.
Biggareau: red firm-fleshed variety of cherry.
Bigorneau: periwinkle, tiny sea snail.
Bigoudène, à la: in the style of Bigouden, a province in Brittany (pommes) baked slices of unpeeled potato (ragôut) sausage stewed with bacon and potato.
Billy Bi, Billy By: cream of mussel soup, specialty of the Atlantic coast.
Biologique: organic.
Biscuit à la cuillère: ladyfinger.
Bistrotier: bistro owner.
Blanc (de poireau): white portion (of leek).
Blanc (de volaille): usually breast (of chicken).
Blanc-manger: chilled pudding of almond milk with gelatin.
Blanquette: classic mild stew of poached veal, lamb, chicken, or seafood, enriched with an egg and cream white sauce supposedly a dish for convalescents.
Blé (noir): wheat (buckwheat).
Blette, bette: Swiss chard.
Bleu: “blue” cooked rare, usually for steak. See also Truite au bleu.
Bleu d’Auvergne: a strong, firm, and moist flattened cylinder of blue-veined cheese made from cow’s milk in the Auvergne, sold wrapped in foil still made on some farms.
Bleu de Bresse: a cylinder of mild blue-veined cow’s-milk cheese from the Bresse area in the Rhône-Alps region industrially made.
Bleu de Gex: thick, savory blue-veined disc of cow’s-milk cheese from the Jura made in only a handful of small dairies in the département of the Ain.
Bleu des Causses: a firm, pungent, flat cylinder of blue-veined cow’s-milk cheese, cured in cellars similar to those used in making Roquefort.
Blini: small thick pancake, usually eaten with caviar.
Boeuf à la ficelle: beef tied with string and poached in broth.
Boeuf à la mode: beef marinated and braised in red wine, served with carrots, mushrooms, onions, and turnips.
Boeuf gros sel: boiled beef, served with vegetables and coarse salt.
Bohémienne, à la: gypsy style with rice, tomatoes, onions, sweet peppers, and paprika, in various combinations.
Boisson (non) comprise: drink (not) included.
Bolet: type of wild boletus mushroom. See cèpe.
Bombe: molded, layered ice cream dessert.
Bonbon: candy or sweet.
Bon-chrétien: “good Christian” a variety of pear, also known as poire William’s.
Bondon: small cylinder of delicately flavored, mushroomy cow’s-milk cheese made in the Neufchâtel area in Normandy.
Bonite: a tuna, or oceanic bonito.
Bonne femme (cuisine): meat garnish of bacon, potatoes, mushrooms, and onions fish garnish of shallots, parsley, mushrooms, and potatoes or white wine sauce with shallots, mushrooms, and lemon juice (home-style cooking).
Bordelaise: Bordeaux style also refers to a brown sauce of shallots, red wine, and bone marrow.
Bouchée: “tiny mouthful” may refer to a bite-size pastry or to a vol-au-vent.
Boudouses: literally, to pout tiny oysters from Brittany that refuse to grow to normal size iodine rich and prized.
Bouchoteur: mussel fisherman a dish containing mussels.
Boudin: technically a meat sausage, but generically any sausage-shaped mixture.
Boudin blanc: white sausage of veal, chicken, or pork.
Boudin noir: pork blood sausage.
Bouillabaisse: popular Mediterranean fish soup, most closely identified with Marseille, ideally prepared with the freshest local fish, preferably rockfish. Traditionally might include dozens of different fish, but today generally includes the specifically local rascasse (scorpion fish), Saint-Pierre (John Dory), fiéla (conger eel), galinette (gurnard or grondin), vive (weever), and baudroie (monkfish) cooked in a broth of water, olive oil, onions, garlic, tomatoes, parsley, and saffron. The fish is served separately from the broth, which is poured over garlic-rubbed toast, and seasoned with rouille which is stirred into the broth. Varied additions include boiled potatoes, orange peel, fennel, and shellfish. Expensive shellfish are often added in restaurant versions, but this practice is considered inauthentic.
Bouilliture: eel stew with red wine and prunes specialty of the Poitou-Charentes on the Atlantic coast.
Bouillon: stock or broth.
Boulangère, à la: in the style of the “baker’s wife” meat or poultry baked or braised with onions and potatoes.
Boule: “ball” a large round loaf of white bread, also known as a miche.
Boule de Picoulat: meatball from Languedoc, combining beef, pork, garlic, and eggs, traditionally served with cooked white beans.
Boulette d’Avesnes: pepper-and-tarragon-flavored cheese, made from visually defective Maroilles, formed into a cone, and colored red with paprika named for Avesnes, a village in the North.
Bouquet: large reddish shrimp. See also crevette rose.
Bouquet garni: typically fresh whole parsley bay leaf and thyme tied together with string and tucked into stews the package is removed prior to serving.
Bouquetière: garnished with bouquets of vegetables.
Bourdaloue: hot poached fruit, sometimes wrapped in pastry often served with vanilla custard often pear.
Bourgeoise, à la: with carrots, onions, braised lettuce, celery, and bacon.
Bourguignonne, à la: Burgundy style often with red wine, onions, mushrooms, and bacon.
Bouribot: spicy red-wine duck stew.
Bourride: a Mediterranean fish soup that generally includes a mixture of small white fish, onions, tomatoes, garlic, herbs, and olive oil, thickened with egg yolks and aïoli (garlic mayonnaise) there are many variations.
Bourriole: rye flour pancake, both sweet and savory specialty of the Auvergne.
Boutargue, poutargue: salty paste prepared from dried mullet or tuna roe, mashed with oil specialty of Provence.
Bouton de culotte: “trouser button” tiny buttons of goat cheese from the Lyon area traditionally made on farms, aged until rock hard and pungent today found in many forms, from soft and young to hard and brittle.
Braiser: to braise to cook meat by browning in fat, then simmering in covered dish with small amount of liquid.
Branche, en: refers to whole vegetables or herbs.
Brandade (de morue): a warm garlicky purée (of salt cod) with milk or cream or oil, and sometimes mashed potatoes specialty of Provence currently used to denote a variety of flavored mashed potato dishes.
Brassado: a doughnut that is boiled, then baked, much like a bagel specialty of Provence.
Brayaude, gigot: leg of lamb studded with garlic, cooked in white wine, and served with red beans, braised cabbage, or chestnuts.
Brebis (fromage de): sheep (sheep’s-milk cheese).
Brési (Breuzi): smoked, salted, and dried beef from the Jura.
Bretonne, à la: in the style of Brittany a dish served with white beans or may refer to a white wine sauce with carrots, leeks, and celery.
Bretzel: a pretzel specialty of Alsace.
Brie de Meaux: “king of cheese,” the flat wheel of cheese made only with raw cow’s milk and aged at least four weeks from Meaux, just east of Paris brie made with pasteurized milk does not have the right to be called brie de Meaux.
Brie de Melun: smaller than brie de Meaux, another raw-cow’s-milk cheese, aged at least one month, with a crackly rust-colored rind.
Brillat-Savarin: (1755-1826) famed gastronome, coiner of food aphorisms, and author of The Physiology of Taste the high-fat, supple cow’s-milk cheese from Normandy is named for him.
Brioche: buttery egg-enriched yeast bread.
Brocciu: soft, young, sheep’s milk cheese from Corsica.
Broche, à la: spit-roasted.
Brochet(on): freshwater pike (small pike).
Brochette: cubes of meat or fish and vegetables on a skewer.
Brocoli: broccoli
Brouet: old term for soup.
Brouillade: a mixture of ingredients as in a stew or soup also, scrambled eggs.
Brouillé(s): scrambled, usually eggs.
Brousse: a very fresh and unsalted (thus bland) sheep’s- or goat’s-milk cheese, not unlike Italian ricotta specialty of Nice and Marseille.
Broutard: young goat.
Brugnon: nectarine.
Brûlé(e): “burned” usually refers to caramelization.
Brunoise: tiny diced vegetables.
Brut: very dry or sugarless, particularly in reference to Champagne.
Buccin: large sea snail or whelk, also called bulot.
Bûche de Noël: Christmas cake shaped like a log (bûche), a sponge cake often flavored with chest-nuts and chocolate.
Buffet froid: variety of dishes served cold, sometimes from a buffet.
Bugne: deep-fried yeast-dough fritter or doughnut dusted with confectioner's sugar popular in and around Lyon before Easter.
Buisson: “bush” generally a dish including vegetables arranged like a bush classically a crayfish pre-sentation.
Bulot: large sea snail or whelk, also called buccin.
Buron: traditional hut where cheese is made in the Auvergne mountains.

Cabécou(s): small, round goat’s-milk cheese from the southwest, sometimes made with a mix of goat’s and cow’s milk.
Cabillaud: fresh codfish, also currently called morue: known as doguette in the North, bakalua in the Basque region, eglefin in Provence.
Cabri: young goat.
Cacahouète, cacahouette, cacachuète: prepared peanut--roasted, dry roasted, or salted. A raw peanut is arachide.
Cacao: cocoa powdered cocoa.
Cachat: a very strong goat cheese generally a blend of various ends of leftover cheese, mixed with seasonings that might include salt, pepper, brandy and garlic, and aged in a crock specialty of Provence.
Caen, à la mode de: in the style of Caen, a town in Normandy a dish cooked in Calvados and white wine and/or cider.
Café: coffee, as well as a type of eating place where coffee is served.
allongé: weakened espresso, often served with a small pitcher of hot water so clients may thin the coffee themselves.
au lait or crème: espresso with warmed or steamed milk.
déca or décaféiné: decaffeinated coffee.
express: plain black espresso.
faux: decaffeinated coffee.
filtre: filtered American-style coffee (not available at all cafés).
glacé: iced coffee.
liégeois: iced coffee served with ice cream (optional) and whipped cream also coffee ice cream with whipped cream.
noir: plain black espresso.
noisette: espresso with tiny amount of milk.
serré: extra-strong espresso, made with half the normal amount of water.
Caféine: caffeine.
Cagouille: on the Atlantic coast, name for small petit gris land snail, or escargot.
Caille: quail.
Caillé: clotted or curdled curds of milk.
Caillette: round pork sausage including chopped spinach or Swiss chard, garlic, onions, parsley, bread, and egg and wrapped in crépine (caul fat) served hot or cold specialty of northern Provence.
Caisse: cash register or cash desk.
Caissette: literally, “small box” bread, brioche, or chocolate shaped like a small box.
Cajasse: a sort of clafoutis from the Dordogne, made with black cherries.
Cajou: cashew nut.
Calisson d’Aix: delicate, diamond-shaped Provençal sweet prepared with almonds, candied oranges, melon or abricots, egg white, sugar, and jam of oranges or apricots.
Calmar: small squid, similar to encornet with interior transparent cartilage instead of a bone. Also called chipiron in the southwest.
Calvados: a département in Normandy known for the famed apple brandy.
Camembert (de Normandie): village in Normandy that gives its name to a supple, fragrant cheese made of cow’s milk.
Camomille: camomile, herb tea.
Campagnard(e) (assiette): country-style, rustic (an informal buffet of cold meats, terrines, etc.).
Campagne, à la: country-style.
Canada: cooking apple.
Canapé: originally a slice of crustless bread now also used to refer to a variety of hors d’oeuvre consisting of toasted or fried bread, spread with forcemeat, cheese, and other flavorings.
Canard: duck.
Canard à la presse: roast duck served with a sauce of juices obtained from pressing the carcass, combined with red wine and Cognac.
Canard sauvage: wild duck, usually mallard.
Cancoillotte: spreadable cheese from the Jura usually blended with milk, spices, or white wine when served.
Caneton: young male duck.
Canette: young female duck.
Cannelle: cinnamon.
Cannoise, à la: in the style of Cannes.
Canon: the marrow bone
Cantal: large cylindrical cheese made in the Auvergne from shredded and pressed curds of cow’s milk.
Cantalon: smaller version of Cantal.
Cantaloup: cantaloupe melon.
Capilotade: basically any leftover meat or poultry cooked to tenderness in a well-reduced sauce.
Capre: caper.
Capucine: nasturtium the leaves and flowers are used in salads.
Carafe (d’eau): pitcher (of tap water). House wine is often offered in a carafe. A full carafe contains one liter a demi-carafe contains half a liter a quart contains one-fourth of a liter.
Caraïbes: Caribbean, usually denotes chocolate from the Caribbean.
Caramelisé: cooked with high heat to brown the sugar and heighten flavor.
Carbonnade: braised beef stew prepared with beer and onions specialty of the North also refers to a cut of beef.
Cardamome: cardamon.
Carde: white rib, or stalk, portion of Swiss chard.
Cardon: cardoon large celery-like vegetable in the artichoke family, popular in Lyon, Provence, and the Mediterranean area.
Cargolade: a copious mixed grill of snails, lamb, pork sausage, and sometimes blood sausage, cooked over vine clippings specialty of Catalan, an area of southern Languedoc.
Carotte: carrot.
Carpe: carp.
Carpe à la juive: braised marinated carp in aspic.
Carré d’agneau: rack (ribs) or loin of lamb also crown roast.
Carré de porc: rack (ribs) or loin of pork also crown roast.
Carré de veau: rack (ribs) or loin of veal also crown roast.
Carrelet: see Plaice.
Carte, à la: menu (dishes, which are charged for individually, selected from a restaurant’s full list of offerings).
Carte promotionelle or conseillée: a simple and inexpensive fixed-price meal.
Carvi (grain de): caraway (seed).
Cary: curry.
Casher: kosher.
Casse-croûte: “break bread” slang for snack.
Casseron: cuttlefish.
Cassis (crème de): black currant (black currant liqueur).
Cassolette: usually a dish presented in a small casserole.
Cassonade: soft brown sugar demerara sugar.
Cassoulet: popular southwestern casserole of white beans, including various combinations of sausages, duck, pork, lamb, mutton, and goose.
Cavaillon: a town in Provence, known for its small, flavorful orange-fleshed melons.
Caviar d’aubergine: cold seasoned eggplant puree.
Caviar du Puy: green lentils from Le Puy, in the Auvergne.
Cébette: a mild, leek-like vegetable, sliced and eaten raw, in salads native to Provence, but seen occasionally outside the region.
Cebiche: seviche generally raw fish marinated in lime juice and other seasonings.
Cédrat: a variety of Mediterranean lemon.
Céleri (en branche): celery (stalk).
Céleri-rave: celeriac, celery root.
Céleri remoulade: popular first-course bistro dish of shredded celery root with tangy mayonnaise.
Cendre (sous la): ash (cooked by being buried in embers) some cheeses made in wine-producing regions are aged in the ash of burned rootstocks.
Cèpe: large, meaty wild boletus mushroom.
Cerdon: sparkling (pétillant) rosé wines made in the Bugey appellation in the southern Jura.
Céréale: cereal.
Cerf: stag, or male deer.
Cerfeuil: chervil.
Cerise: etccherry.
Cerise noire: black cherry.
Cerneau: walnut meat.
Cervelas: garlicky cured pork sausage now also refers to fish and seafood sausage.
Cervelle(s): brain(s), of calf or lamb.
Cervelle de canut: a soft, fresh herbed cheese known as “silkworker’s brains” specialty of Lyon.
Céteau(x): small ocean fish, solette or baby sole, found in the gulf of Gascony and along the Atlantic coast.
Cévenole, à la: Cevennes style garnished with chestnuts or mushrooms.
Chalutier: trawler any flat fish caught with a trawl.
Champêtre: rustic describes a simple presentation of a variety of ingredients.
Champignon: mushroom.
à la bague: parasol mushroom with a delicate flavor also called coulemelle, cocherelle, and grisotte.
des bois: wild mushroom, from the woods.
de Paris: most common cultivated mushroom.
sauvage: wild mushroom.
Champvallon, côtelette d’agneau: traditional dish of lamb chops baked in alternating layers of pota-toes and onions named for a village in northern Burgundy.
Chanterelle: prized pale orange wild mushroom also called girolle.
Chantilly: sweetened whipped cream.
Chaource: soft and fruity cylindrical cow’s-milk cheese, with a 50 percent fat content takes its name from a village in Champagne.
Chapeau: “hat” small round loaf, topped with a little dough hat.
Chapelure: bread crumbs.
Chapon: capon, or castrated chicken.
Chapon de mer: Mediterranean fish, in the rascasse or scorpion-fish family.
Charbon de bois, au: charcoal-grilled.
Charentais: variety of sweet cantaloupe, or melon, originally from the Charentes, on the Atlantic coast.
Charlotte: classic dessert in which a dish is lined with ladyfingers, filled with custard or other filling, and served cold in the hot version, the dish is lined with crustless white bread sautéed in butter, filled with fruit compote and baked. Also a potato variety.
Charolais: area of Burgundy light colored cattle producing high-quality beef also, firm white cylinder of cheese made with goat’s or cow’s milk, or a mixture of the two.
Chartreuse: dish of braised partridge and cabbage also herb and spiced-based liqueur made by the Chartreuse monks in the Savoie.
Chasseur: hunter also, sauce with white wine, mushrooms, shallots, tomatoes, and herbs.
Châtaigne: chestnut, smaller than marron, with multiple nut meats.
Chateaubriand: thick filet steak, traditionally served with sautéed potatoes and a sauce of white wine, dark beef stock, butter, shallots, and herbs, or with a béarnaise sauce.
Châtelaine, à la: elaborate garnish of artichoke hearts and chestnut purée, braised lettuce, and sautéed potatoes.
Chaud(e): hot or warm.
Chaud-froid: “hot-cold” cooked poultry dish served cold, usually covered with a cooked sauce, then with aspic.
Chaudrée: Atlantic fish stew, often including sole, skate, small eels, potatoes, butter, white wine, and seasoning.
Chausson: a filled pastry turnover, sweet or savory.
Chemise, en: wrapped with pastry.
Cheval: horse, horse meat.
Cheveux d’ange: “angel’s hair” thin vermicelli pasta.
Chèvre (fromage de): goat (goat’s-milk cheese).
Chevreau: young goat.
Chevreuil: young roe buck or roe deer venison.
Chevrier: small, pale green, dried kidney-shaped bean, a type of flageolet.
Chichi: doughnut-like, deep-fried bread spirals sprinkled with sugar often sold from trucks at open-air markets specialty of Provence and the Mediterranean.
Chicons du Nord: Belgian endive.
Chicorée (frisée): a bitter salad green (curly endive) also chicory, a coffee substitute.
Chicorée de Bruxelles: Belgian endive.
Chiffonnade: shredded herbs and vegetables, usually green.
Chinchard: also called saurel, scad or horse mackerel Atlantic and Mediterranean fish similar to mackerel.
Chipiron (à l’encre): southwestern name for small squid, or encornet (in its own ink).
Chipolata: small sausage.
Chips, pommes: potato chips.
Chocolat: chocolate.
amer: bittersweet chocolate, with very little sugar.
au lait: milk chocolate.
chaud: hot chocolate.
mi-amer: bittetsweet chocolate, with more sugar than chocolat amer.
noir: used interchangeably with chocolat amer.
Choix, au: a choice usually meaning one may choose from several offerings.
Chorizo: highly spiced Spanish sausage.
Choron, sauce: béarnaise sauce with tomatoes.
Chou: cabbage.
Chou de Bruxelles: brussels sprout.
Chou de mer: sea kale.
Chou de Milan: Savoy cabbage.
Chou-fleur: cauliflower.
Chou frisé: kale.
Chou-navet: rutabaga.
Chou-rave: kohlrabi.
Chou rouge: red cabbage.
Chou vert: curly green Savoy cabbage.
Choucas: jackdaw European blackbird, like a crow, but smaller.
Choucroute (nouvelle): sauerkraut (the season’s first batch of sauerkraut, still crunchy and slightly acidic) also main dish of sauerkraut, various sausages, bacon, and pork, served with potatoes specialty of Alsace and brasseries all over France.
Choux, pâte à: cream pastry dough.
Ciboule: spring onion, or scallion.
Ciboulette: chives.
Cidre: bottled, mildly alcoholic cider, either apple or pear.
Cigale de mer: “sea cricket” tender, crayfish-like, blunt-nosed rock lobster.
Cîteaux: creamy, ample disc of cow’s-milk cheese with a rust-colored rind made by the Cistercian monks at the Abbaye de Cîteaux in Burgundy.
Citron: lemon.
Citron, orange, or pamplemousse pressé(e): lemon, orange, or grapefruit juice served with a carafe of tap water and sugar for sweetening to taste.
Citron vert: lime.
Citronnelle: lemon grass, an oriental herb also lemon balm (mèlisse).
Citrouille: pumpkin, gourd. Also called courge, potiron, potimarron.
Cive: spring onion.
Civelle: spaghetti-like baby eel, also called pibale.
Civet: stew, usually of game traditionally thickened with blood.
Civet de lièvre: jugged hare, or wild rabbit stew.
Civet de tripes d’oies: a stew of goose innards, sautéed in fat with onions, shallots, and garlic, then cooked in wine vinegar and diluted with water, and thickened with goose blood from Gascony.
Clafoutis: traditional custard tart, usually made with black cherries specialty of the southwest.
Claire: oyster also a designation given to certain oysters to indicate they have been put in claires, or oyster beds in salt marshes, where they are fattened up for several months before going to market.
Clamart: Paris suburb once famous for its green peas today a garnish of peas.
Clémentine: small tangerine, from Morocco or Spain.
Clouté: studded with.
Clovisse: variety of very tiny clam, generally from the Mediterranean.
Cocherelle: parasol mushroom with a delicate flavor also called champignon à la bague, coulemelle, and grisotte.
Cochon (de lait): pig (suckling).
Cochonnaille(s): pork product(s) usually an assortment of sausages and/or pâtés served as a first course.
Coco blanc (rouge): type of small white (red) shell bean, both fresh and dried, popular in Provence, where it is a traditional ingredient of the vegetable soupe au pistou also, coconut.
Coco de Paimpol: Cream-colored shell bean striated with purple, from Brittany, in season from July to November the first bean in France to receive AOC.
Cocotte: a high-sided cooking pot (casserole) with a lid a small ramekin dish for baking and serving eggs and other preparations.
Coeur: heart.
Coeur de filet: thickest (and best) part of beef filet, usually cut into chateaubriand steaks.
Coeur de palmier: delicate shoots of the palm tree, generally served with a vinaigrette as an hors d’oeuvre.
Coffre: “chest” refers to the body of a lobster or other crustacean, or of a butchered animal.
Coiffe: traditional lacy hat sausage patty wrapped in caul fat.
Coing: quince.
Col vert: wild (“green-collared”) mallard duck.
Colbert: method of preparing fish, coating with egg and bread crumbs and then frying.
Colère, en: “anger” method of presenting fish in which the tail is inserted in the mouth, so it appears agitated.
Colin: hake, ocean fish related to cod known as merluche in the North, merluchon in Brittany, bardot or merlan along the Mediterranean.
Colombe: dove.
Colombo: a mixture of spices, like a curry powder, used to season shellfish, meat or poultry. Like curry, the mix may vary, but usually contains tumeric, rice powder, coriander, pepper, cumin, and fenugreek.
Colza: rape, a plant of the mustard family, colorful yellow field crop grown throughout France, usu-ally pressed into vegetable (rapeseed) oil.
Commander avant le repas, à: a selection of desserts that should be ordered when selecting first and main courses, as they require longer cooking.
Complet: filled up, with no more room for customers.
Compote: stewed fresh or dried fruit.
Compotier: fruit bowl also stewed fruit.
Compris: see Service (non) compris.
Comté: large wheel of cheese of cooked and pressed cow’s milk the best is made of raw milk and aged for six months, still made by independent cheesemakers in the Jura mountains.
Concassé: coarsely chopped.
Concombre: cucumber.
Conférence: a variety of pear.
Confiserie: candy, sweet, or confection a candy shop.
Confit: a preserve, generally pieces of duck, goose, or pork cooked and preserved in their own fat also fruit or vegetables preserved in sugar, alcohol, or vinegar.
Confiture: jam.
Confiture de vieux garçon: varied fresh fruits macerated in alcohol.
Congeler: to freeze.
Congre: conger eel a large ocean fish resembling a freshwater eel (anguille) often used in fish stews.
Conseillé: advised, recommended.
Consommation(s): “consumption” drinks, meals, and snacks available in a cafe or bar.
Consommé: clear soup.
Contre-filet: cut of sirloin taken above the loin on either side of the backbone, tied for roasting or braising (can also be cut for grilling).
Conversation: puff pastry tart with sugar glazing and an almond or cream filling.
Copeau(x): shaving(s), such as from chocolate, cheese, or vegetables.
Coq (au vin): mature male chicken (stewed in wine sauce).
Coq au vin jaune: chicken cooked in the sherry-like vin jaune of the region, with cream, butter and tarragon, often garnished with morels specialty of the Jura.
Coq de bruyère: wood grouse.
Coque: cockle, a tiny, mild-flavored, clam-like shellfish.
Coque, à la: served in a shell. See Oeuf à la coque.
Coquelet: young male chicken.
Coquillage(s): shellfish.
Coquille: shell.
Coquille Saint-Jacques: sea scallop.
Corail: coral-colored egg sac, found in scallops, spiny lobster, and crayfish.
Corb: a Mediterranean bluefish.
Coriandre: coriander either the fresh herb or dried seeds.
Corne d’abondance: “horn of plenty” dark brown wild mushroom, also called trompette de la mort.
Cornet: cornet-shaped usually refers to foods rolled conically also an ice cream cone, and a conic al pastry filled with cream.
Cornichon: gherkin tiny tart cucumber pickle.
Côte d’agneau: lamb chop.
Côte de boeuf: beef blade or rib steak.
Côte de veau: veal chop.
Côtelette: thin chop or cutlet.
Cotriade: a fish stew, usually including mackerel, whiting, conger eel, sorrel, butter, potatoes, and vinegar specialty of Brittany.
Cou d’oie (de canard) farci: neck skin of goose (of duck), stuffed with meat and spices, much like sausage.
Coulant: refers to runny cheese.
Coulemelle: parasol mushroom with a delicate flavor also called champignon à la bague, cocherelle, and grisotte.
Coulibiac: classic, elaborate, hot Russian pâté, usually layers of salmon, rice, hard-cooked eggs, mushrooms, and onions, wrapped in brioche.
Coulis: purée of raw or cooked vegetables or fruit.
Coulommiers: town in the Ile-de-France that gives its name to a supple, fragrant disc of cow’s-milk cheese, slightly larger than Camembert.
Courge (muscade): generic term for squash or gourd (bright orange pumpkin).
Courgette: zucchini.
Couronne: “crown” ring or circle, usually of bread.
Court-bouillon: broth, or aromatic poaching liquid.
Couscous: granules of semolina, or hard wheat flour also refers to a hearty North African dish that includes the steamed grain, broth, vegetables, meats, hot sauce, and sometimes chickpeas and raisins.
Couteau: razor clam.
Couvert: a place setting, including dishes, silver, glassware, and linen.
Couverture: bittersweet chocolate high in cocoa butter used for making the shiniest chocolates.
Crabe: crab.
Crambe: sea kale, or chou de mer.
Cramique: brioche with raisins or currants specialty of the North.
Crapaudine: preparation of grilled poultry or game bird with backbone removed.
Craquant: crunchy.
Craquelot: smoked herring.
Crécy: a dish garnished with carrots.
Crémant: sparkling wine.
Crème: cream.
aigre: sour cream.
anglaise: light egg-custard cream.
brûlée: rich custard dessert with a top of caramelized sugar.
caramel: vanilla custard with caramel sauce.
catalane: creamy anise flavored custard from the southern Languedoc.
chantilly: sweetened whipped cream.
épaisse: thick cream.
fleurette: liquid heavy cream.
fouettée: whipped cream.
fraîche: thick sour heavy cream.
pâtissière: custard filling for pastries and cakes.
plombières: custard filled with fresh fruits and egg whites.
Crêpe: thin pancake.
Crêpe Suzette: hot crêpe dessert flamed with orange liqueur.
Crépine: caul fat.
Crépinette: traditionally, a small sausage patty wrapped in caul fat today boned poultry wrapped in caul fat.
Cresson(ade): watercress (watercress sauce).
Crête (de coq): (cock’s) comb.
Creuse: elongated, crinkle-shelled oyster.
Crevette: shrimp.
Crevette grise: tiny soft-fleshed shrimp that turns gray when cooked.
Crevette rose: small firm-fleshed shrimp that turns red when cooked when large, called bouquet.
Crique: potato pancake from the Auvergne.
Criste marine: edible algae.
Croque au sel, à la: served raw, with a small bowl of coarse salt for seasoning tiny purple artichokes and cherry tomatoes are served this way.
Croque-madame: open-face sandwich of ham and cheese with an egg grilled on top.
Croque-monsieur: toasted ham and cheese sandwich.
Croquembouche: choux pastry rounds filled with cream and coated with a sugar glaze, often served in a conical tower at special events.
Croquette: ground meat, fish, fowl, or vegetables bound with eggs or sauce, shaped into various forms, usually coated in bread crumbs, and deep fried.
Crosne: small, unusual tuber with a subtle artichoke-like flavor known as a Chinese or Japanese artichoke.
Crottin de Chavignol: small flattened ball of goat’s-milk cheese from the Loire valley.
Croustade: usually small pastry-wrapped dish also regional southwestern pastry filled with prunes and/or apples.
Croûte (en): crust (in) pastry.
Croûte de sel (en): (in) a salt crust.
Croûtons: small cubes of toasted or fried bread.
Cru: raw.
Crudité: raw vegetable.
Crustacé(s): crustacean(s).
Cuillière (à la): (to be eaten with a) spoon.
Cuisse (de poulet): leg or thigh (chicken drumstick).
Cuissot, cuisseau: haunch of veal, venison, or wild boar.
Cuit(e): cooked.
Cul: haunch or rear usually of red meat.
Culotte: rump, usually of beef.
Cultivateur: “truck farmer” fresh vegetable soup.
Curcuma: turmeric.
Cure-dent: toothpick.

Damier: “checkerboard” arrangement of vegetables or other ingredients in alternating colors like a checkerboard also, a cake with such a pattern of light and dark pieces.
Darne: a rectangular portion of fish filet also a fish steak, usually of salmon.
Dariole: truncated cone or oval-shaped baking mold.
Dartois: puff pastry rectangles layered with an almond cream filling as a dessert, or stuffed with meat or fish as an hors-d’oeuvre.
Datte (de mer): date (date-shaped prized wild Mediterranean mussel).
Daube: a stew, usually of beef lamb, or mutton, with red wine, onions, and/or tomatoes specialty of many regions, particularly Provençe and the Atlantic coast.
Dauphin: cow’s-milk cheese shaped like a dauphin, or dolphin from the North.
Daurade: sea bream, similar to porgy, the most prized of a group of ocean fish known as dorade.
Décaféiné or déca: decaffeinated coffee.
Décortiqué(e): shelled or peeled.
Dégustation: tasting or sampling.
Déjeuner: lunch.
Demi: half also, an 8-ounce (250 ml) glass of beer also, a half-bottle of wine.
Demi-deuil: “in half mourning” poached (usually chicken) with sliced truffles inserted under the skin also, sweetbreads with a truffled white sauce.
Demi-glace: concentrated beef-based sauce lightened with consommé, or a lighter brown sauce.
Demi-sec: usually refers to goat cheese that is in the intermediate aging stage between one extreme of soft and fresh and the other extreme of hard and aged.
Demi-sel (beurre): lightly salted (butter).
Demi-tasse: small cup after-dinner coffee cup.
Demoiselle de canard: marinated raw duck tenderloin also called mignon de canard.
Demoiselles de Cherbourg: small lobsters from the town of Cherbourg in Normandy, cooked in a court-bouillon and served in cooking juices. Also, restaurant name for Breton lobsters weighing 300 to 400 grams (10 to 13 ounces).
Dentelle: “lace” a portion of meat or fish so thinly sliced as to suggest a resemblance. Also, large lace-thin sweet crêpe.
Dent, denté: one of a generic group of Mediterranean fish known as dorade, similar to porgy.
Dents-de-lion: dandelion salad green also called pissenlit.
Dés: diced pieces.
Désossé: boned.
Diable: “devil” method of preparing poultry with a peppery sauce, often mustard-based. Also, a round pottery casserole.
Dieppoise: Dieppe style usually white wine, mussels, shrimp, mushrooms, and cream.
Digestif: general term for spirits served after dinner such as Armagnac, Cognac, marc, eau-de-vie.
Dijonnaise: Dijon style usually with mustard.
Dinde: turkey hen.
Dindon(neau): turkey (young turkey).
Dîner: dinner to dine.
Diot: pork sausage cooked in wine, often served with a potato gratin specialty of the Savoie.
Discrétion, à: on menus usually refers to wine, which may be consumed--without limit--at the customer’s discretion.
Dodine: cold stuffed boned poultry.
Dorade: generic name for group of ocean fish, the most prized of which is daurade, similar to porgy.
Doré: browned until golden.
Dos: back also the meatiest portion of fish.
Doucette: see Mâche.
Douceur: sweet or dessert.
Douillon, duillon: a whole pear wrapped and cooked in pastry specialty of Normandy.
Doux, douce: sweet.
Doyenné de Comice: a variety of pear.
Dugléré: white flour-based sauce with shallots, white wine, tomatoes, and parsley.
Dur (oeuf): hard (hard-cooked egg).
Duxelles: minced mushrooms and shallots sautéed in butter, then mixed with cream.

Eau du robinet: tap water.
Eau de source: spring water.
Eau-de-vie: literally, “water of life” brandy, usually fruit-based.
Eau gazeuse: carbonated water.
Eau minérale: mineral water.
Echalote (gris): shallot (prized purplish shallot), elongated.
Echalote banane: banana-shaped onion.
Echine: pork shoulder, encompassing the blade bone and spare ribs.
Echourgnac: delicately flavored, ochre-skinned cheese made of cow’s milk by the monks at the Echourgnac monastery in the Dordogne.
Eclade de moules: mussels roasted beneath a fire of pine needles specialty of the Atlantic coast.
Ecrasé: crushed with fruit, pressed to release juice.
Ecrevisse: freshwater crayfish.
Effiloché: frayed, shredded.
Eglantine: wild rose jam specialty of Alsace.
Eglefin, égrefin, aiglefin: small fresh haddock, a type of cod.
Elzekaria: soup made with green beans, cabbage, and garlic specialty of the Basque region.
Embeurré de chou: buttery cooked cabbage.
Emincé: thin slice, usually of meat.
Emmental: large wheel of cooked and pressed cow’s-milk cheese, very mild in flavor, with large interior holes made in large commercial dairies in the Jura.
Emondé: skinned by blanching, such as almonds, tomatoes.
En sus: see Service en sus.
Enchaud: pork filet with garlic specialty of Dordogne.
Encornet: small illex squid, also called calmar in Basque region called chipiron.
Encre: squid ink.
Endive: Belgian endive also chicory salad green.
Entier, entière: whole, entire.
Entrecôte: beef rib steak.
Entrecôte maître d’hôtel: beef rib steak with sauce of red wine and shallots.
Entrée: first course.
Entremets: dessert.
Epais(se): thick.
Epaule: shoulder (of veal, lamb, mutton, or pork).
Épeautre: poor man’s wheat from Provence spelt.
Eperlan: smelt or whitebait, usually fried, often imported but still found in the estuaries of the Loire.
Epi de maïs: ear of sweet corn.
Epice: spice.
Epigramme: classic dish of grilled breaded lamb chop and a piece of braised lamb breast shaped like a chop, breaded, and grilled crops up on modern menus as an elegant dish of breaded and fried baby lamb chops paired with lamb sweetbreads and tongue.
Epinard: spinach.
Epine vinette: highbush cranberry.
Époisses: village in Burgundy that gives its name to a buttery disc of cow’s milk cheese with a strong, smooth taste and rust-colored rind.
Époisses blanc: fresh white Époisses cheese.
Equille: sand eel, a long silvery fish that buries itself in the sand eaten fried on the Atlantic coast.
Escabèche: a Provençal and southwestern preparation of small fish, usually sardines or rouget, in which the fish are browned in oil, then marinated in vinegar and herbs and served very cold. Also, raw fish marinated in lemon or lime juice and herbs.
Escalivada: Catalan roasted vegetables, usually sweet peppers, eggplant, and onions.
Escalope: thin slice of meat or fish.
Escargot: land snail.
Escargot de Bourgogne: land snail prepared with butter garlic, and parsley.
Escargot petit-gris: small land snail.
Escarole: bitter salad green of the chicory family with thick broad-lobed leaves, found in both flat and round heads.
Espadon: swordfish found in the gulf of Gascony, Atlantic, and Mediterranean.
Espagnole, à l’: Spanish style with tomatoes, peppers, onions, and garlic.
Esqueixada: in Catalan literally means “shredded” a shredded salt cod salad.
Estival: summer, used to denote seasonality of ingredients.
Estoficado: a purée-like blend of dried codfish, olive oil, tomatoes, sweet peppers, black olives, potatoes, garlic, onions, and herbs also called stockfish niçoise: specialty of Nice.
Estofinado: a purée-like blend of dried codfish, potatoes, garlic, parsley, eggs, walnut oil, and milk, served with triangles of toast specialty of the Auvergne.
Estouffade à la provençale: beef stew with onions, garlic, carrots, and orange zest.
Estragon: tarragon.
Etoffé: stuffed.
Etoile: star star-shaped.
Etouffé étuvé: literally “smothered” method of cooking very slowly in a tightly covered pan with almost no liquid.
Etrille: small swimming crab.
Express: espresso coffee.

Façon (à ma): (my) way of preparing a dish.
Fagot: “bundle” meat shaped into a small ball.
Faisan(e): pheasant.
Faisandé: game that has been hung to age.
Fait: usually refers to a cheese that has been well aged and has character---runny if it’s a Camembert, hard and dry if it’s a goat cheese also means ready to eat.
Fait, pas trop: refers to a cheese that has been aged for a shorter time and is blander also for a cheese that will ripen at home.
Falette: veal breast stuffed with bacon and vegetables, browned, and poached in broth specialty of the Auvergne.
Fanes: green tops of root vegetables such as carrots, radishes, turnips.
Far: Breton sweet or savory pudding-cakes the most common, similar to clafoutis from the Dordogne, is made with prunes.
Farci(e): stuffed.
Farigoule(tte): Provençal name for wild thyme.
Farine: flour.
complète: whole wheat flour.
d’avoine: oat flour.
de blé: wheat flour white flour.
de maïs: corn flour.
de sarrasin: buckwheat flour.
de seigle: rye flour.
de son: bran flour.
Faux-filet: sirloin steak.
Favorite d’artichaut: classic vegetable dish of artichoke stuffed with asparagus, covered with a cheese sauce, and browned.
Favou(ille): in Provence, tiny male (female) crab often used in soups.
Fenouil: fennel.
Fer à cheval: “horseshoe” a baguette that has that shape.
Féra, feret: salmon-like lake fish, found in Lac Léman, in the Morvan, in Burgundy, and in the Auvergne.
Ferme (fermier: fermière): farm (farmer) in cheese, refers to farm-made cheese, often used to mean raw-milk cheese in chickens, refers to free-range chickens.
Fermé: closed.
Fernkase: young cheese shaped like a flying saucer and sprinkled with coarsely ground pepper specialty of Alsace.
Feu de bois, au: cooked over a wood fire.
Feuille de chêne: oak-leaf lettuce.
Feuille de vigne: vine leaf.
Feuilletage (en): (in) puff pastry.
Feuilletée: puff pastry.
Féves (févettes): broad, fava, coffee, or cocoa beans (miniature beans) also, the porcelain figure baked into the Twelfth Night cake, or, galette des rois.
Fiadone: Corsican flan made from cheese and oranges.
Ficelle (boeuf à la): “string” (beef suspended on a string and poached in broth). Also, small thin baguette. Also, a small bottle of wine, as in carafe of Beaujolais.
Ficelle picarde: thin crêpe wrapped around a slice of ham and topped with a cheesy cream sauce specialty of Picardy, in the North.
Figue: fig.
Financier: small rectangular almond cake.
Financière: Madiera sauce with truffle juice.
Fine de claire: elongated crinkle-shelled oyster that stays in fattening beds (claires) a minimum of two months.
Fines herbes: mixture of herbs, usually chervil, parsley, chives, tarragon.
Flageolet: small white or pale green kidney-shaped dried bean.
Flamande, à la: Flemish style usually with stuffed cabbage leaves, carrots, turnips, potatoes, and bacon.
Flamber: to burn off the alcohol by igniting. Usually the brandies or other liqueurs to be flambéed are warmed first, then lit as they are poured into the dish.
Flamiche (au Maroilles): a vegetable tart with rich bread dough crust, commonly filled with leeks, cream, and cheese specialty of Picardy, in the North (filled with cream, egg, butter, and Maroilles cheese).
Flammekueche: thin-crusted savory tart, much like a rectangular pizza, covered with cream, onions, and bacon also called tarte flambée specialty of Alsace.
Flan: sweet or savory tart. Also, a crustless custard pie.
Flanchet: flank of beef or veal, used generally in stews.
Flagnarde, flaugnarde, flognarde: hot, fruit-filled batter cake made with eggs, flour, milk, and butter, and sprinkled with sugar before serving specialty of the southwest.
Flétan: halibut, found in the English Channel and North Sea.
Fleur (de sel): flower (fine, delicate sea salt, from Brittany or the Camargue).
Fleur de courgette: zucchini blossom.
Fleuron: puff pastry crescent.
Florentine: with spinach. Also, a cookie of nougatine and candied fruit brushed with a layer of chocolate.
Flûte: “flute” usually a very thin baguette also, form of champagne glass.
Foie: liver.
Foie blond de volaille: chicken liver also sometimes a chicken-liver mousse.
Foie de veau: calf’s liver.
Foie gras d’oie (de canard): liver of fattened goose (duck).
Foin (dans le): (cooked in) hay.
Fond: cooking juices from meat, used to make sauces. Also, bottom.
Fond d’artichaut: heart and base of an artichoke.
Fondant: “melting” refers to cooked, worked sugar that is flavored, then used for icing cakes. Also, the bittersweet chocolate high in cocoa butter used for making the shiniest chocolates. Also, puréed meat, fish, or vegetables shaped in croquettes.
Fondu(e): melted.
Fontainebleau: creamy white fresh dessert cheese from the Ile-de-France.
Forestière: garnish of wild mushrooms, bacon, and potatoes.
Fouace: a kind of brioche specialty of the Auvergne.
Foudjou: a pungent goat-cheese spread, a blend of fresh and aged grated cheese mixed with salt, pepper, brandy, and garlic and cured in a crock specialty of northern Provence.
Fougasse: a crusty lattice-like bread made of baguette dough or puff pastry often flavored with anchovies, black olives, herbs, spices, or onions specialty of Provence and the Mediterranean. Also, a sweet bread of Provence flavored with orange-flower water, oil, and sometimes almonds.
Fouchtrou: cow’s milk cheese from the Auvergne, made when there is not enough milk to make an entire wheel of Cantal.
Four (au): (baked in an) oven.
Fourme d’Ambert: cylindrical blue-veined cow’s-milk cheese, made in dairies around the town of Ambert in the Auvergne.
Fourré: stuffed or filled.
Foyot: classic sauce made of béarnaise with meat glaze.
Frais, fraîche: fresh or chilled.
Fraise: strawberry.
Fraise des bois: wild strawberry.
Framboise: raspberry.
Française, à la: classic garnish of peas with lettuce, small white onions, and parsley.
Frangipane: almond custard filling.
Frappé: usually refers to a drink served very cold or with ice, often shaken.
Frémi: “quivering” often refers to barely cooked oysters.
Friandise: sweetmeat, petit four.
Fricadelle: fried minced meat patty.
Fricandeau: thinly sliced veal or a rump roast, braised with vegetables and white wine.
Fricassée: classically, ingredients braised in wine sauce or butter with cream added currently denotes any mixture of ingredients--fish or meat--stewed ot sautéed.
Fricot (de veau): veal shoulder simmered in white wine with vegetables.
Frisé(e): “curly” usually curly endive, the bitter salad green of the chicory family sold in enormous round heads.
Frit(e): fried.
Frites: French fries.
Fritons: coarse pork rillettes or a minced spread which includes organ meats.
Fritot: small organ meat fritter, where meat is partially cooked, then marinated in oil, lemon juice, and herbs, dipped in batter and fried just before serving also can refer to any small fried piece of meat or fish.
Friture: fried food also a preparation of small fried fish, usually white-bait or smelt.
Froid(e): cold.
Fromage: cheese.
blanc: a smooth low-fat cheese similar to cottage cheese.
d’alpage: cheese made in mountain pastures during the prime summer milking period.
fort: pungent cheese.
frais: smooth, runny fresh cheese, like cottage cheese.
frais, bien égouté: well-drained fresh cheese.
maigre: low-fat cheese.
Fromage de tête: headcheese, usually pork.
Fruit confit: whole fruit preserved in sugar.
Fruits de mer: seafood.
Fumé: smoked.
Fumet: fish stock.

Galantine: classical preparation of boned meat or whole poultry that is stuffed or rolled, cooked, then glazed with gelatin and served cold.
Galette: round flat pastry, pancake, or cake can also refer to pancake-like savory preparations in Brittany usually a savory buckwheat crêpe, known as blé noir.
Galette bressane, galette de Pérouges: cream and sugar tart from the Bresse area of the Rhône-Alpes.
Galette des rois: puff pastry filled with almond pastry cream, traditional Twelfth Night celebration cake.
Galinette: tub gurnard, Mediterranean fish of the mullet family.
Gambas: large prawn.
Ganache: classically a rich mixture of chocolate and crème fraîche used as a filling for cakes and chocolate truffles currently may also include such flavorings as wild strawberries and cinnamon.
Garbure: a hearty stew that includes cabbage, beans, and salted or preserved duck, goose, turkey or pork specialty of the southwest.
Gardiane: stew of beef or bull (toro) meat, with bacon, onions, garlic, and black olives served with rice specialty of the Camargue, in Provence.
Gargouillau: pear cake or tart specialty of northern Auvergne.
Garni(e): garnished.
Garniture: garnish.
Gasconnade: roast leg of lamb with garlic and anchovies specialty of the southwest.
Gaspacho: a cold soup, usually containing tomatoes, cucumber, onions, and sweet peppers originally of Spanish origin.
Gâteau: cake.
basque: a chewy sweet cake filled with pastry cream or, historically, with black cherry jam also called pastiza specialty of the Basque region.
breton: a rich round pound cake specialty of Brittany.
Opéra: classic almond sponge cake layered with coffee and chocolate butter cream and covered with a sheet of chocolate seen in every pastry shop window.
Saint-Honoré: classic cake of choux puffs dipped in caramel and set atop a cream-filled choux crown on a pastry base.
Gaude: thick corn-flour porridge served hot, or cold and sliced, with cream.
Gaufre: waffle.
Gave: southwestern term for mountain stream indicates fish from the streams of the area.
Gayette: small sausage patty made with pork liver and bacon, wrapped in caul fat and bacon.
Gelée: aspic.
Gendarme: salted and smoked herring.
Genièvere: juniper berry.
Génoise: sponge cake.
Gentiane: gentian a liqueur made from this mountain flower.
Germiny: garnish of sorrel. Also, sorrel and cream soup.
Germon: albacore or long-fin tuna.
Gésier: gizzard.
Gibassier: round sweet bread from Provence, often flavored with lemon or orange zest, orange-flower water, and/or almonds. Also sometimes called fougasse or pompe à l’huile.
Gibelotte: fricassée of rabbit in red or white wine.
Gibier: game, sometimes designated as gibier à plume (feathered) or gibier à poil (furry).
Gigot (de pré salé): usually a leg of lamb (lamb grazed on the salt meadows along the Atlantic and Normandy coasts).
Gigot de mer: a preparation, usually of large pieces of monkfish (lotte) oven-roasted like a leg of lamb.
Gigue (de): haunch (of) certain game meats.
Gillardeau: prized oyster raised in Normandy and finished in claires, or fattening beds on the Atlantic coast.
Gingembre: ginger.
Girofle: clove.
Girolle: prized pale orange wild mushroom also called chanterelle.
Givré orange givré: frosted orange sherbet served in its skin.
Glace: ice cream.
Glacé: iced, crystallized, or glazed.
Gnocchi: dumplings made of choux paste, potatoes, or semolina.
Goret: young pig.
Gougère: cheese-flavored choux pastry.
Goujon: small catfish generic name for a number of small fish. Also, preparation in which the central part of a larger fish is coated with bread crumbs, then deep fried.
Goujonnette: generally used to describe a small piece of fish, such as sole, usually fried.
Gourmandise(s): weakness for sweet things (sweetmeats or candies).
Gousse d’ail: clove of garlic.
Gousse de vanille: vanilla bean.
Goût: taste.
Goûter (le): to taste, to try (children’s afternoon snack).
Graine de moutarde: mustard seed.
Graine de lin: Flax seed
Graisse: fat.
Graisserons: crisply fried pieces of duck or goose skin cracklings.
Grand crème: large or double espresso with milk.
Grand cru: top-ranking wine.
Grand veneur: “chief huntsman” usually a brown sauce for game, with red currant jelly.
Granité: a type of sherbet a sweetened, flavored ice.
Grappe (de raisins): cluster bunch (of grapes).
Gras (marché au): fatty (market of fattened poultry and their livers).
Gras-double: tripe baked with onions and white wine.
Gratin: crust formed on top of a dish when browned in broiler or oven also the dish in which such food is cooked.
Gratin dauphinois: baked casserole of sliced potatoes, usually with cream, milk, and sometimes cheese and/or eggs.
Gratin savoyard: baked casserole of sliced potatoes, usually with bouillon, cheese, and butter.
Gratiné(e): having a crusty, browned top.
Gratinée lyonnaise: bouillon flavored with port, garnished with beaten egg, topped with cheese, and browned under a broiler.
Grattons, grattelons: crisply fried pieces of pork, goose, or duck skin cracklings.
Gratuit: free.
Grecque, à la: cooked in seasoned mixture of oil, lemon juice, and water refers to cold vegetables, usually mushrooms.
Grelette, sauce: cold sauce with a base of whipped cream.
Grelot: small white bulb onion.
Grenade: pomegranate.
Grenaille: refers to small, bite-size new potato of any variety.
Grenadin: small veal scallop.
Grenouille (cuisse de): frog (leg).
Gressini: breadsticks, seen along the Côte-d’Azur.
Gribiche, sauce: mayonnaise with capers, cornichons, hard-cooked eggs, and herbs.
Grillade: grilled meat.
Grillé(e): grilled.
Griotte: shiny slightly acidic, reddish black cherry.
Grisotte: parasol mushroom with a delicate flavor also called champignon à la bague. cocherelle. and coulemelle.
Grive: thrush.
Grondin: red gurnard, a bony ocean fish, a member of the mullet family, used in fish stews such as bouillabaisse.
Groin d’âne: “donkey’s snout” Lyonnais name for a bitter winter salad green similar to dandelion greens.
Gros sel: coarse salt.
Groseille: red currant.
Gruyère: strictly speaking, cheese from the Gruyère area of Switzerland in France, generic name for a number of hard, mild, cooked cheeses from the Jura, including Comté, Beaufort, and Emmental.
Gyromite: group of wild mushrooms, or gyromitra, known as false morels.

Hachis: minced or chopped meat or fish preparation.
Haddock: small fresh cod that have been salted and smoked.
Hareng: herring, found in the Atlantic, the English Channel (the best between Dunkerque and Fécamp), and the mouth of the Gironde river.
Hareng à l’huile: herring cured in oil, usually served with a salad of warm sliced potatoes.
Hareng baltique, bismark: marinated herring.
Hareng bouffi: herring that is salted, then smoked.
Hareng pec: freshly salted young herring.
Hareng roll-mop: marinated herring rolled around a small pickle.
Hareng saur: smoked herring.
Haricot: bean.
beurre: yellow bean.
blancs (à la Bretonne): white beans, usually dried (white beans in a sauce of onions, tomatoes, garlic, and herbs).
de mouton: stew of mutton and white beans (also called halicots).
gris: green string bean mottled with purplish black also called pélandron: a specialty of the Côte-d’Azur.
rouge: red kidney bean also, preparation of red beans in red wine.
sec: dried bean.
vert: green bean, usually fresh.
Hâtelet, attelet: decorative skewer currently used to mean meat or fish cooked on a skewer.
Herbes de Provence: mixture of thyme, rosemary, summer savory, and bay leaf, often dried and blended.
Hirondelle: swallow.
Hochepot: a thick stew, usually of oxtail specialty of Flanders, in the north.
Hollandaise: sauce of butter, egg yolks, and lemon juice.
Homard (à l’Amoricaine, à l’Américaine): lobster (a classic dish of many variations, in which lobster is cut into sections and browned, then simmered with shallots, minced onions, tomatoes, Cognac, and white wine served with a sauce of the reduced cooking liquid, enriched with butter).
Hongroise, à la: Hungarian style usually with paprika and cream.
Hors-d’oeuvre: appetizer can also refer to a first course.
Hortillon: picturesque market garden plot built between crisscrossed canals on the outskirts of Amiens, a city in the north.
Huile: oil.
d’arachide: peanut oil.
de colza: rapeseed oil.
de maïs: corn oil.
de noisette: hazelnut oil.
de noix: walnut oil.
de pépins de raisins: grapeseed oil.
de sésame: sesame oil.
de tournesol: sunflower oil.
d’olive (extra vierge): olive oil (extra virgin, or the first cold pressing).
Huître: oyster.
Hure de porc or de marcassin: head of pig or boar: usually refers to headcheese preparation.
Hure de saumon: a salmon “headcheese,” or pâté, prepared with salmon meat, not actually the head.
Hysope: hyssop fragrant, mint-like thistle found in Provence, used in salads and in cooking.

Ile flottante: “floating island” most commonly used interchangeably with oeufs à la neige, poached meringue floating in crème anglaise classically, a layered cake covered with whipped cream and served with custard sauce.
Impératrice, à l’: usually a rice pudding dessert with candied fruit.
Impériale: variety of plum. Also, a large bottle for wine, holding about 4 quarts (4 liters).
Impériale, à l’: classic haute cuisine garnish of mussels, cockscombs, crayfish, and other extravagant ingredients.
Indienne, à l’: East Indian style, usually with curry powder.
Infusion: herb tea.
Isman bayaldi, imam bayaldi: “the priest fainted” in Turkish a dish of eggplant stuffed with sautéed onions, tomatoes, and spices served cold.

Jalousie: “venetian blind” classic small, latticed, flaky pastry filled with almond paste and spread with jam.
Jambon: ham also refers to the leg, usually of pork, but also of poultry.
à l’os: ham with the bone in.
blanc: lightly salted, un-smoked or very lightly smoked ham, served cooked sold, cold, in charcuteries as jambon de Paris, glacé, or demi-sel.
cru: salted or smoked ham that has been cured but not cooked.
cuit: cooked ham.
d’Auvergne: raw, dry, salt-cured smoked ham.
de Bayonne: raw, dry salt-cured ham, very pale in color.
de Bourgogne: see jambon persillé.
de montagne: any mountain ham, cured according to local custom.
de Paris: pale, lightly salted, cooked ham.
de Parme: Italian prosciutto from Parma, air-dried and salt-cured ham, sliced thin and served raw.
de pays: any country ham, cured according to local custom.
de poulet: boned stuffed chicken leg.
de Westphalie: German Westphalian ham, raw, cured, and smoked.
de York: smoked English-style ham, usually poached.
d’oie (or de canard): breast of fattened goose (or duck), smoked, salted, or sugar cured, somewhat resembling ham in flavor.
fumé: smoked ham.
persillé: cold cooked ham, cubed and preserved in parsleyed gelatin, usually sliced from a terrine a specialty of Burgundy.
salé: salt-cured ham.
sec: dried ham.
Jambonneau: cured ham shank or pork knuckle.
Jambonnette: boned and stuffed knuckle of ham or poultry.
Jardinière: refers to a garnish of fresh cooked vegetables.
Jarret (de veau, de porc, de boeuf): knuckle (of veal or pork), shin (of beef).
Jerez: refers to sherry.
Jésus de Morteau: plump smoked pork sausage that takes its name from the town of Morteau in the Jura distinctive because a wooden peg is tied in the sausage casing on one end traditionally, the sausage eaten at Christmas, hence its name also called saucisson de Morteau.
Jeune: young.
Jonchée: rush basket in which certain fresh sheep’s- or goat’s-milk cheeses of Poitou (along the Atlantic coast) are contained thus, by extension, the cheese itself.
Joue: cheek.
Julienne: cut into slivers, usually vegetables or meat.
Jurançon: district in the Béarn, the area around Pau in southwestern France, known for its sweet and spicy white wine.
Jus: juice.

Kataifi (also kataif): thin strands of vermicelli-like dough, used in Green and Middle Eastern pastries and in some modern French preparations.
Kaki: persimmon.
Kari: variant spelling of cary.
Kiev: deep-fried breast of chicken stuffed with herb and garlic butter.
Kir: an aperitif made with crème de cassis (black currant liqueur) and most commonly dry white wine, but sometimes red wine.
Kir royal: a Kir made with Champagne.
Kirsch: eau-de-vie of wild black cherries.
Knepfla: Alsatian dumpling, sometimes fried.
Kougelhoph, hougelhof, kouglof, kugelhoph: sweet crown-shaped yeast cake, with almonds and rai-sins specialty of Alsace.
Kouigh-amann: sweet, buttery pastry from Brittany.
Kummel: caraway seed liqueur.

Lactaire: the edible lactaire pallidus mushroom, also called sanguine. Apricot-colored, with red, blood colored juices when raw.
Laguiole: Cantal cheese from the area around the village of Laguiole, in southern Auvergne, still made in rustic huts.
Lait: milk.
demi-écremé: semi-skimmed milk.
écremé: skimmed milk.
entier: whole milk.
ribot: from Brittany, buttermilk, served with crêpes.
stérilizé: milk heated to a higher temperature than pasteurized milk, so that it stays fresh for several weeks.
Laitance: soft roe (often of herring), or eggs.
Laitier: made of or with milk also denotes a commercially made product as opposed to fermier, meaning farm made.
Lait ribot: fermented milk from Brittany, similar to cultured buttermilk.
Laitue: lettuce.
Lamelle: very thin strip.
Lamproie (à la bordelaise): lamprey eel, ocean fish that swim into rivers along the Atlantic in springtime (hearty stew of lamprey eel and leeks in red wine).
Lançon: tiny fish, served fried.
Landaise, à la: from the Landes in southwestern France classically a garnish of garlic, pine nuts, and goose fat.
Langouste: clawless spiny lobster or rock lobster sometimes called crawfish, and mistakenly crayfish.
Langoustine: clawed crustacean, smaller than either homard or langouste, with very delicate meat. Known in British waters as Dublin Bay prawn.
Langres: supple, tangy cylindrical cow’s-milk cheese with a rust-colored rind named for village in Champagne.
Langue (de chat): tongue (“cat’s tongue” thin, narrow, delicate cookie often served with sherbet or ice).
Languedocienne: garnish, usually of tomatoes, eggplant, and wild cèpe mushrooms.
Lapereau: young rabbit.
Lapin: rabbit.
Lapin de garenne: wild rabbit.
Lard: bacon.
Larder: to thread meat, fish, or liver with strips of fat for added moisture.
Lardon: cube of bacon.
Larme: “teardrop” a very small portion of liquid.
Laurier: bay laurel or bay leaf.
Lavaret: lake fish of the Savoie, similar to salmon.
Léger (légère): light.
Légume: vegetable.
Lentilles (de Puy): lentils (prized green lentils from the village of Puy in the Auvergne).
Lieu jaune: green pollack, in the cod family a pleasant, inexpensive small yellow fish often sold under name colin found in the Atlantic.
Lieu noir: pollack, also called black cod in the cod family a pleasant, inexpensive fish found in the English Channel and the Atlantic.
Lièvre (à la royale): hare (cooked with red wine, shallots, onions, and cinnamon, then rolled and stuffed with foie gras and truffles).
Limaces à la suçarelle: snails cooked with onions, garlic, tomatoes, and sausage specialty of Pro-vence.
Limaçon: land snail.
Limande: lemon sole, also called dab or sand dab, not as firm or prized as sole, found in the English Channel, the Atlantic, and, rarely, in the Mediterranean.
Lingot: type of kidney-shaped dry white bean.
Lisette: small maquereau, or mackerel.
Livarot: village in Normandy that gives its name to an elastic and pungent thick disc of cow’s-milk cheese with reddish golden stripes around the edge.
Lotte: monkfish or angler fish, a large firm-fleshed ocean fish.
Lotte de rivière (or de lac): fine-fleshed river (or lake) fish, prized for its large and flavorful liver. Not related to the ocean fish lotte, or monkfish.
Lou magret: breast of fattened duck.
Loup de mer: wolf fish or ocean catfish name for sea bass in the Mediterranean.
Louvine: Basque name for striped bass, fished in the Bay of Gascony.
Lucullus: a classic, elaborate garnish of truffles cooked in Madeira and stuffed with chicken forcemeat.
Lumas: name for land snail in the Poitou-Charentes region along the Atlantic coast.
Luzienne, à la: prepared in the manner popular in Saint-Jean-de-Luz, a Basque fishing port.
Lyonnaise, à la: in the style of Lyon often garnished with onions.

Macaron: macaroon, small cookie of almonds, egg whites, and sugar.
Macaronade: a rich blend of wild and domestic mushrooms and chunks of foie gras, smothered in fresh pasta specialty of the southwest. Also, macaroni with mushrooms, bacon, white wine, and Parmesan cheese an accompaniment to a beef stew, or daube specialty of Provence.
Macédoine: diced mixed fruit or vegetables.
Mâche: dark small-leafed salad green known as lamb’s lettuce or corn salad. Also called doucette.
Mâchon: early morning snack of sausage, wine, cheese, and bread also, the café that offers the snack particular to Lyon.
Macis: mace, the spice.
Madeleine (de Commercy): small scalloped-shaped tea cake made famous by Marcel Proust (the town in the Lorraine where the tea cakes are commercialized).
Madère: Madeira.
Madrilène, à la: in the style of Madrid with tomatoes. Classically a garnish of peeled chopped tomatoes for consommé.
Magret de canard (or d’oie): breast of fattened duck (or goose).
Maigre: thin, non-fatty giant seabass from Mediterranean and Atlantic.
Maïs: corn.
Maison, de la: of the house, or restaurant.
Maître d’hôtel: headwaiter. Also, sauce of butter, parsley and lemon.
Maltaise: orange-flavored hollandaise sauce.
Malvoisie, vinaigre de: vinegar made from the malvasia grape, used for the sweet, heavy Malmsey wine.
Mandarine: tangerine.
Mange-tout: “eat it all” a podless green runner bean a sweet pea a snow pea. Also, a variety of apple.
Mangue: mango.
Manière, de: in the style of.
Maquereau: mackerel lisette is a small mackerel.
Mara de Bois: small fragrant strawberry, like a cross between a domestic and wild strawberry.
Maraîchèr(e) (à la): market gardener or truck farmer (market-garden style usually refers to a dish or salad that includes various greens).
Marbré: striped sea bream, Mediterranean fish that is excellent grilled.
Marc: eau-de-vie distilled from pressed grape skins and seeds or other fruits.
Marcassin: young boar. At one year, a wild boar will weight 40 kg, a domesticated boar 120 kg.
Marchand de vin: wine merchant. Also, sauce made with red wine, meat stock, and chopped shallots.
Marée la: literally “the tide” usually used to indicate seafood that is fresh.
Marennes: flat-shelled green-tinged plate oyster. Also the French coastal village where flat-shelled oysters are raised.
Marinade: seasoned liquid in which food, usually meat, is soaked for several hours. The liquid seasons and tenderizes at the same time.
Mariné: marinated.
Marjolaine: marjoram. Also, multilayered chocolate and nut cake.
Marmelade: traditionally a thick purée of fruit, or sweet stewed fruit today purée of vegetable, or stewed vegetables.
Marmite: small covered pot also a dish cooked in a small casserole.
Maroilles: village in the north that gives its name to a strong-tasting, thick, square cow’s-milk cheese with a pale brick-red rind.
Marquise (au chocolat): mousse-like (chocolate) cake.
Marron (glacé): large (candied) chestnut.
Matelote (d’anguilles): freshwater fish (or eel) stew.
Matignon: a garnish of mixed stewed vegetables.
Mauviette: wild meadow lark or skylark.
Médaillon: round piece or slice, usually of fish or meat.
Mélange: mixture or blend.
Méli-mélo: an assortment of fish and/or seafood.
Melon de Cavaillon: small canteloupe-like melon from Cavaillon, a town in Provence known for its wholesale produce market.
Ménagère, à la: “in the style of the housewife” usually a simple preparation including onions, pota-toes, and carrots.
Mendiant, fruits du: traditional mixture of figs, almonds, hazelnuts, and raisins, whose colors suggest the robes of the mendicant friars it is named after.
Menthe: mint.
Merguez: small spicy sausage.
Merlan: whiting.
Merle: blackbird.
Merlu: hake, a member of the codfish family often sold improperly in Paris markets as colin found in the English Channel, Atlantic, and Mediterranean.
Mérou: a large grouper, an excellent tropical or near-tropical fish, generally imported from North Africa but sometimes found in the Atlantic and Mediterranean.
Merveille: hot sugared doughnut.
Mesclum, mesclun: a mixture of at least seven multi-shaded salad greens from Provence.
Mets: dish or preparation.
Mets selon la saison: seasonal preparation according to the season.
Méture: corn bread from the Basque region.
Meule: “millstone” name for wheel of cheese in the Jura.
Meunière, à la: “in the style of the miller’s wife” refers to a fish that is seasoned, rolled in flour, fried in butter and served with lemon, parsley and hot melted butter.
Meurette: in, or with, a red wine sauce. Also, a Burgundian fish stew.
Mi-cru: half raw.
Mi-cuit: half cooked.
Miche: a large round country-style loaf of bread. Also, Basque name for aniseed cake-like bread.
Mie: interior or crumb of the bread (see Pain de mie).
Miel: honey
Mignardise: see Petit-four.
Mignon de canard: see Demoiselle de canard.
Mignonette: small cubes, usually of beef. Also refers to coarsely ground black ot white pepper.
Mijoté(e) (plat): simmered (dish or preparation).
Mille-feuille: refers to puff pastry with many thin layers usually a cream-filled rectangle of puff pastry, or a Napoleon.
Mimosa: garnish of chopped hard-cooked egg yolks.
Minute (à la): “minute” something quickly grilled or fried in butter with lemon juice and parsley (prepared at the last minute).
Mique: generally a large breaded dumpling, poached and served with stews and meats specialty of the Southwest.
Mirabeau: garnish of anchovies, pitted olives, tarragon, and anchovy butter.
Mirabelle: small sweet yellow plum. Also, colorless fruit brandy or eau-de-vie, made from yellow plums.
Mirepoix: cubes of carrots and onions or mixed vegetables, usually used in braising to boost the flavor of a meat dish.
Miroir: “mirror” a dish that has a smooth glaze currently a fruit mousse cake with a layer of fruit glaze on top.
Miroton (de): slice (of). Also, stew of meats flavored with onions.
Mitonnée: a simmered, soup-like dish.
Mode de, à la: in the style of.
Moëlle: beef bone marrow.
Mogette, mojette, mougette: a kind of dried white bean from the Atlantic coast.
Moka: refers to Coffee coffee-flavored dish.
Mollusque: mollusk.
Mont blanc: rich classic pastry of baked meringue, chestnut purée, and whipped cream.
Montagne, de la: from the mountains.
Montmorency: garnished with cherries historically a village known for its cherries, now a suburb of Paris.
Morbier: supple cow’s-milk cheese from the Jura a thin sprinkling of ashes in the center gives it its distinctive black stripe and light smoky flavor.
Morceau: piece or small portion.
Morille: wild morel mushroom, dark brown and conical.
Mornay: classic cream sauce enriched with egg yolks and cheese.
Morue: salt cod also currently used to mean fresh cod, which is cabillaud.
Morvandelle, jambon à la: in the style of the Morvan (ham in a piquant creamy sauce made with white wine, vinegar, juniper berries, shallots, and cream).
Morvandelle, râpée: grated potato mixed with eggs, cream, and cheese, baked until golden.
Mosaïque: “mosaic” a presentation of mixed ingredients.
Mostèle: forkbeard mostelle small Mediterranean fish of the cod family.
Mouclade: creamy mussel stew from the Poitou-Charentes on the Atlantic Coast, generally flavored with curry or saffron.
Moufflon: wild sheep.
Moule: mussel. Also a mold.
Moule de bouchot: small, highly prized cultivated mussel, raised on stakes driven into the sediment of shallow coastal beds.
Moule de Bouzigues: iodine-strong mussel from the village of Bouzigues, on the Mediterranean coast.
Moule d’Espagne: large, sharp-shelled mussel, often served raw as part of a seafood platter.
Moule de parques: Dutch cultivated mussel, usually raised in fattening beds or diverted ponds.
Moules marinière: mussels cooked in white wine with onions, shallots, butter, and herbs.
Moulin (à poivre): mill (peppermill) also used for oil and flour mills.
Mourone: Basque name for red bell pepper.
Mourtayrol, mourtaïrol: a pot-au-feu of boiled beef, chicken, ham, and vegetables, flavored with saf-fron and served over slices of bread specialty of the Auvergne.
Mousse: light, airy mixture usually containing eggs and cream, either sweet or savory.
Mousseline: refers to ingredients that are usually lightened with whipped cream or egg whites, as in sauces, or with butter, as in brioche mousseline.
Mousseron: tiny, delicate, wild mushroom.
Moutarde (à l’ancienne, en graines): mustard (old-style, coarse-grained).
Mouton: mutton.
Muge: grey mullet.
Mulard: breed of duck common to the southwest, fattened for its delicate liver, for foie gras.
Mulet: the generic group of mullet, found in the English Channel, Atlantic, and Mediterranean.
Munster: village in Alsace that gives its name to a disc of soft, tangy cow’s-milk cheese with a brick red rind and a penetrating aroma the cheese is also sometimes cured with cumin seeds.
Mûre (de ronces): blackberry (bush).
Muscade: nutmeg.
Muscat de Hambourg: variety of popular purple table grape, grown in Provence.
Museau de porc (or de boeuf): vinegared pork (or beef) muzzle.
Myrtille: bilberry (bluish black European blueberry).
Mystère: truncated cone-shaped ice cream dessert. Also, dessert of cooked meringue with ice cream and chocolate cake.

Nage (à la): “swimming” aromatic poaching liquid (served in).
Nantua: sauce of crayfish, butter, cream, and, traditionally truffles also garnish of crayfish.
Nappé: covered, as with a sauce.
Natte: woven loaf of bread.
Nature: refers to simple, unadorned preparations.
Navarin: lamb or mutton stew.
Navarraise, à la: Navarre-style, with sweet peppers, onions, and garlic.
Navet: turnip.
Navette: “little boat” small pastry boats.
Nèfle: medlar also called Japanese loquat tart fruit that resembles an apricot and taste like a mango.
Neufchâtel: white, creamy, delicate (and often heart-shaped) cow’s-milk cheese, named for village in Normandy where it is made.
Newburg: lobster preparation with Madeira, egg yolks, and cream.
Nivernaise, à la: in the style of Nevers with carrots and onions.
Noilly: a vermouth-based sauce.
Noisette: hazelnut also refers to small round piece (such as from a potato), generally the size of a ha-zelnut, lightly browned in butter. Also, center cut of lamb chop. Also, dessert flavored with hazelnuts.
Noix: general term for nut also, walnut. Also, nut-size, typically une noix de beurre, or lump of butter.
Noix de veau: round fillet of veal
Non compris: see Service (non) compris.
Nonat: small river fish in Provence, usually fried. Also known as poutine.
Normande: in the style of Normandy sauce of seafood, cream, and mushrooms. Also refers to fish or meat cooked with apple cider or Calvados or dessert with apples, usually served with cream.
Note: another word for addition, bill or tab.
Nougat: candy of roasted almonds, egg whites, and honey specialty of Montélimar.
Nougat glacé: frozen dessert of whipped cream and candied fruit.
Nouilles: noodles.
Nouveau, nouvelle: new or young.
Nouveauté: a new offering.

Oeuf: egg.
à la coque: soft-cooked egg.
brouillé: scrambled egg.
dur: hard-cooked egg.
en meurette: poached egg in red wine sauce.
mollet: egg simmered in water for 6 minutes.
poché: poached egg.
sauté à la poêle or oeuf sur le plat: fried egg.
Oeufs à la neige: “eggs in the snow” sweetened whipped egg whites poached in milk and served with vanilla custard sauce.
Offert: offered free or given.
Oie: goose.
Oignon: onion.
Oiselle: sorrel.
Olive noire (verte): black olive (green olive).
Olives cassées: fresh green olives cured in a rich fennel-infused brine specialty of Provence.
Olive de Nyons: wrinkled black olive, first olive in France to receive AOC. Also used for oil.
Omble (ombre) chevalier: lake fish, similar to salmon trout, with firm, flaky flesh varying from white to deep red. Found in lakes in the Savoie.
Omelette norvegienne: French version of Baked Alaska a concoction of sponge cake covered with ice cream and a layer of sweetened, stiffly beaten egg whites, then browned quickly in the oven.
Onglet: cut similar to beef flank steak also cut of beef sold as biftek and entrecôte, usually a tough cut, but better than flank steak.
Oreille de porc: cooked pig’s ear served grilled, with a coating of egg and bread crumb.
Oreillette: thin, crisp rectangular dessert fritters, flavored with orange-flower water specialty of Pro-vence.
Orge (perlé): barley (pearl barley).
Orientale, à l’: general name for vaguely Eastern dishes cooked with saffron, tomatoes, and sweet red peppers.
Origan: oregano.
Ortie: nettle.
Oseille: sorrel.
Osso bucco à la niçoise: sautéed veal braised with tomatoes, garlic, onions, and orange zest spe-cialty of the Mediterranean.
Ostréiculteur: oyster grower.
Oursin: sea urchin.
Oursinade: creamy sea urchin soup.
Ouvert: open.

Pageot: a type of sea bream or porgy. The finest is pageot rouge, wonderful grilled. Pageot blanc is drier and needs to be marinated in oil before cooking.
Paillarde (de veau): thick slice (of veal) also, piece of meat pounded flat and sauteéed.
Pailles (pommes): fried potato sticks.
Paillette: cheese straw, usually made with puff pastry and Parmesan cheese.
Pain: bread. Also, loaf of any kind.
aux cinq céréales: five-grain bread.
aux noix (aux noisettes): bread, most often rye or wheat, filled with walnuts (hazelnuts).
aux raisins: bread, most often rye or wheat, filled with raisins.
azyme: unleavened bread, matzoh.
bis: brown bread.
brié: very dense, elongated loaf of unsalted white bread specialty of Normandy.
complet: bread made partially or entirely from whole-wheat flour, with bakers varying proportions according to their personal tastes.
cordon: seldom-found regional country loaf decorated with a strip of dough.
d’Aix: variously shaped sourdough loaves, sometimes like a sunflower, other times a chain-like loaf of four linked rounds.
de campagne: country loaf can vary from a white bread simply dusted with flour to give it a rustic look (and fetch a higher price) to a truly hearty loaf that may be a blend of white, whole wheat, and perhaps rye flour with bran added. Comes in every shape.
Décoré: decorated.
de fantaisie: generally any odd or imaginatively shaped bread. Even baguette de campagne falls into this category.
de Gênes: classic almond sponge cake.
de mie: rectangular white sandwich loaf that is nearly all mie (interior crumb) and very little crust. It is made for durability, its flavor and texture developed for use in sandwiches. Unlike most French breads, it contains milk, sugar, and butter, and may contain chemical preservatives.
d’épices: spice bread, a specialty of Dijon.
de seigle: bread made from 60 to 70 percent rye flour and 30 to 40 percent wheat flour.
de son: legally a dietetic bread that is quality controlled, containing 20 percent bran mixed with white flour.
grillé: toast.
paillé: country loaf from the Basque region.
sans sel: salt-free bread.
viennois: bread shaped like a baguette, with regular horizontal slashes, usually containing white flour, sugar, powdered milk, water, and yeast.
Paleron: shoulder of beef.
Palette: upper shoulder of pork.
Palestine: classically a garnish of Jerusalem artichokes.
Palmier: palm leaf-shaped cookie made of sugared puff pastry.
Palmier, coeur de: heart of palm.
Palombe: wood or wild pigeon, or dove.
Palourde: prized medium-size clam.
Pamplemousse: grapefruit.
Pan bagna: large round bread roll, split, brushed with olive oil, and filled with a variable mixture including anchovies, onions, black olives, green peppers, tomatoes, and celery cafe specialty from Nice.
Panaché: mixed now liberally used menu term to denote any mixture.
Panade: panada, a thick mixture used to bind forcemeats and quenelles, usually flour and butter based, but can also contain fresh or toasted bread crumbs, rice, or potatoes. Also refers to soup of bread, milk, and sometimes cheese.
Panais: parnsip.
Pané(e): breaded.
Panisse: a thick fried pancake of chickpea flour, served as accompaniment to meat specialty of Provence.
Pannequet: rolled crêpe, filled and/or covered with sweet or savory mixture.
Panoufle: Generally discarded belly flap from saddle of lamb, veal, and beef sometimes grilled.
Pantin: small pork pastry.
Papeton: eggplant, fried, puréed, and cooked in a ring mold specialty of Provence.
Papillon: “butterfly” small crinkle-shelled creuse oyster from the Atlantic coast.
Papillote, en: cooked in parchment paper or foil wrapping.
Paquet (en): (in) a package or parcel.
Parfait: a dessert mousse also, mousse-like mixture of chicken, duck, or goose liver.
Parfum: flavor.
Paris-Brest, gâteau: classic, large, crown-shaped choux pastry filled with praline butter cream and topped with chopped almonds.
Parisienne, à la: varied vegetable garnish which generally includes potato balls that have been fried and tossed in a meat glaze.
Parmentier: dish with potatoes.
Passe Crassane: flavorful variety of winter pear.
Passe-Pierre: edible seaweed.
Pastèque: watermelon.
Pastis: anise-flavored alcohol that becomes cloudy when water is added (the most famous brands are Pernod and Ricard). Also, name for tourtière, the flaky prune pastry from the southwest.
Pastiza: see gâteau basque.
Pata Négra (jambon): prized ham from Spain, literally “black feet.”
Patagos: clam.
Pâte: pastry or dough.
brisée: pie pastry
d’amande: almond paste.
sablée: sweeter, richer, and more crumbly pie dough than pâte sucrée, sometimes leavened.
sucrée: sweet pie pastry.
Pâté: minced meat that is molded, spiced, baked, and served hot or cold.
Pâtes (fraîches): pasta (fresh).
Patte blanche: small crayfish no larger than 2 1/2 ounces (75 g).
Patte rouge: large crayfish.
Pauchouse, pochouse: stew of river fish that generally includes tanche (tench), perche (perch), brochet (pike), and anguille (eel) specialty of Burgundy
Paupiette: slice of meat or fish, filled, rolled, then wrapped served warm.
Pavé: “paving stone” usually a thick slice of boned beef or calf’s liver. Also, a kind of pastry.
Pavé d’Auge: thick, ochre colored square of cow’s-milk cheese that comes from the Auge area of Normandy.
Pavot (graine de): poppy (seed).
Paysan(ne) (à la): country style (garnish of carrots, turnips, onions, celery and bacon).
Peau: skin.
Pèbre d’ail: see Poivre d’âne.
Pêche: peach. Also, fishing.
Pêche Alexandra: cold dessert of poached peaches with ice cream and puréed strawberries.
Pêche Melba: poached peach with vanilla ice cream and raspberry sauce.
Pêcheur: “fisherman” usually refers to fish preparations.
Pélandron: see haricot gris.
Pélardon: small flat, dried, pungent disc of goat’s milk cheese specialty of the Languedoc.
Pèlerine: another name for scallop or coquille Saint-Jacques.
Péptie (au chocolat): nugget (chocolate chip).
Pequillo: small red Spanish pepper, usually stuffed with salt cod purée.
Perce-pierre: samphire, edible seaweed.
Perche: perch.
Perdreau: young partridge.
Perdrix: partridge.
Périgourdine, à la, or Périgueux: sauce, usually with truffles and foie gras, named for the Périgord in southwestern France.
Persil (plat): parsley (flatleaf).
Persillade: blend of chopped parsley and garlic.
Persillé: “parsleyed” describes certain blue-veined cheeses. See also Jambon persillé.
Pet de nonne: “nun’s fart” small, dainty beignets, or fried pastry.
Pétale: “petal” very thin slice.
Petit-beurre: popular tea cookie made with butter.
Petit déjeuner: breakfast.
Petit-four (sucré or salée): tiny cake or pastry (sweet or savory) in elegant restaurants, served with cocktails before dinner or with coffee afterward also called mignardise.
Petit-gris: small land snail.
Petit-pois: small green pea.
Petit salé: salt-cured portions of lean pork belly, often served with lentils.
Petite marmite: earthenware casserole the broth served from it.
Pétoncle: tiny scallop, similar to American bay scallop.
Pibale: tiny eel, also called civelle.
Picholine, pitchouline: a variety of green olive, generally used to prepare olives casseés specialty of Provence.
Picodon (méthode Dieulefit): small disc of goat’s-milk cheese, the best of which (qualified as méthode Dieulefit) is hard, piquant, and pungent from having soaked in brandy and aged a month in earthenware jars specialty of northern Provence.
Pièce: portion, piece.
Piech: poached veal brisket stuffed with vegetables, herbs, and sometimes rice, ham, eggs, or cheese specialty of the Mediterranean.
Pied de cheval: “horse’s foot” giant Atlantic coast oyster.
Pied de mouton: meaty cream-colored wild mushroom. Also, sheep’s foot.
Pieds et paquets: “feet and packages” mutton tripe rolled and cooked with sheep’s feet, white wine, and tomatoes specialty of Provence and the Mediterranean.
Pierre-Qui-Vire: “stone that moves” a supple, tangy, flat disc of cow’s-milk cheese with a reddish rind, made by the Benedictine monks at the Abbaye de la Pierre-Qui Vire in Burgundy.
Pigeon (neau): pigeon or squab (young pigeon or squab).
Pignons: pine nuts, found in the cones of pine trees growing in Provence and along the southwestern Atlantic coast.
Pilau, pilaf: rice sautéed with onion and simmered in broth.
Pilchard: name for sardines on the Atlantic coast.
Piment: red pepper or pimento.
Piment (or poivre) de Jamaïque: allspice.
Piment d’Espelette: slender, mildly hot chile pepper from Espelette, a village in the Basque region.
Piment doux: sweet pepper.
Pimenté: hot, peppery, spicy.
Pimpernelle: salad burnet, a salad green with a somewhat bitter taste.
Pince: claw. Also, tongs used when eating snails or seafood.
Pineau des Charentes: sweet fortified wine from the Cognac region on the Atlantic coast, served as an aperitif.
Pintade(au): (young) guinea fowl.
Pipérade: a dish of pepper onions, tomatoes, and often ham and scrambled eggs specialty of the Basque region.
Piquant(e): sharp or spicy tasting.
Piqué: larded studded.
Piquenchagne, picanchagne: a pear tart with walnut or brioche crust specialty of the Bourbonnais, a province in Auvergne.
Pissaladière: a flat open-face tart like a pizza, garnished with onions, olives, and anchovies specialty of Nice.
Pissenlit: dandelion green.
Pistache: pistachio nut.
Pistil de safran: thread of saffron.
Pistou: sauce of basil, garlic, and olive oil specialty of Provence. Also a rich vegetable, bean, and pasta soup flavored with pistou sauce.
Pithiviers: a town in the Loire valley that gives its name to a classic large puff pastry found filled with almond cream. Also, lark pâté.
Plaice: a small, orange-spotted flounder or fluke, a flat ocean fish also known as plie franch or carrelet. Found in the English Channel.
Plat cuisiné: dish containing ingredients that have cooked together, usually in a sauce.
Plat du jour: today’s special.
Plat principal: main dish.
Plate: flat-shelled oyster.
Plateau: platter.
Plateau de fruits de mer: seafood platter combining raw and cooked shell-fish usually includes oys-ters, clams, mussels, langoustines, periwinkles, whelks, crabs, and tiny shrimp.
Plates côtes: part of beef ribs usually used in pot-au feu.
Pleurote: very soft-fleshed, feather-edged wild mushrooms also now being cultivated commercially in several regions of France.
Plie: see Plaice.
Plombière: classic dessert of vanilla ice cream, candied fruit, kirsch, and apricot jam.
Pluche: small sprig of herbs or plants, generally used for garnish.
Poché: poached.
Pochouse: see Pauchouse.
Poêlé: pan-fried.
Pogne: brioche flavored with orange-flower water and filled with fruits specialty of Romans-sur--Isère, in the Rhône-Alpes.
Point(e) (d’asperge): tip (of asparagus).
Point (à): ripe or ready to eat, the perfect moment for eating a cheese or fruit. Also, cooked medium rare.
Poire: pear.
Poire William’s: variety of pear colorless fruit brandy, or eau-de-vie, often made from this variety of pear.
Poireau: leek.
Pois (chiche): pea (chickpea).
Poisson: fish.
d’eau douce: freshwater fish.
de lac: lake fish.
de mer: ocean fish.
de rivière: river fish.
de roche: rock fish.
fumé: smoked fish.
noble: refers to prized, thus expensive, variety of fish.
Poitrine: breast (of meat or poultry).
Poitrine demi-sel: unsmoked slab bacon.
Poitrine d’oie fumée: smoked goose breast.
Poitrine fumée: smoked slab bacon.
Poivrade: a peppery brown sauce made with wine, vinegar, and cooked vegetables and strained before serving.
Poivre: pepper.
d’ain: Provençal name for wild savory. Also, small goat cheese covered with sprigs of savory. Also known as pèbre d’ail and pèbre d’ase.
en grain: peppercorn.
frais de Madagascar: green peppercorn.
gris: black peppercorn.
moulu: ground pepper.
noir: black peppercorn.
rose: pink peppercorn.
vert: green peppercorn.
Poivron (doux): (sweet bell) pepper.
Pojarski: finely chopped meat or fish shaped like a cutlet and fried.
Polenta: cooked dish of cornmeal and water, usually with added butter and cheese also, cornmeal.
Pommade (beurre en): usually refers to a thick, smooth paste (creamed butter).
Pomme: apple.
Pommes de terre: potatoes.
à l’anglaise: boiled.
allumettes: “match-sticks” fries cut into very thin julienne.
boulangère: potatoes cooked with the meat they accompany. Also, a gratin of sliced potatoes, baked with milk or stock and sometimes flavored with onions, bacon, and tomatoes.
darphin: grated potatoes shaped into a cake.
dauphine: mashed potatoes mixed with choux pastry, shaped into small balls and fried.
dauphinoise: a gratin of sliced potatoes, baked with milk and/or cream, garlic, cheese, and eggs.
duchesse: mashed potatoes with butter, egg yolks, and nutmeg, used for garnish.
en robe des champs, en robe de chambre: potatoes boiled or baked in their skin potatoes in their jackets.
frites: French fries.
gratinées: browned potatoes, often with cheese.
lyonnaise: potatoes sautéed with onions.
macaire: classic side dish of puréed potatoes shaped into small balls and fried or baked in a flat cake.
mousseline: potato purée enriched with butter, egg yolks, and whipped cream.
paillasson: fried pancake of grated potatoes.
pailles: potatoes cut into julienne strips, then fried.
Pont-Neuf: classic fries.
sarladaise: sliced potatoes cooked with goose fat and (optionally) truffles.
soufflées: small, thin slices of potatoes fried twice, causing them to inflate so they resemble little pillows.
sous la cèndre: baked under cinders in a fireplace.
vapeur: steamed or boiled potatoes.
Pommes en l’air: caramelized apple slices, usually served with boudin noir (blood sausage).
Pompe à l’huile, pompe de Noël: see Gibassier.
Pompe aux grattons: bread containing cracklings.
Pont l’Evêque: village in Normandy that gives its name to a very tender, fragrant square of cow’s-milk cheese.
Porc (carré de): pork (loin).
Porc (côte de): pork (chop).
Porcelet: young suckling pig.
Porchetta: young pig stuffed with offal, herbs, and garlic, and toasted seen in charcuteries in Nice.
Porto (au): (with) port.
Portugaise: elongated, crinkle-shell oyster.
Pot-au-feu: traditional dish of beef simmered with vegetables, often served in two or mote courses today chefs often use it to mean fish poached in fish stock with vegetables.
Pot bouilli: another name for pot-au-feu.
Pot-de-crème: individual classic custard dessert, often chocolate.
Potage: soup.
Potée: traditional hearty meat soup, usually containing pork, cabbage, and potatoes.
Potimarron: see Citrouille.
Potiron: see Citrouille.
Potjevleisch: a mixed meat terrine, usually of veal, pork, and rabbit specialty of the North.
Poularde: fatted hen.
Poule au pot: boiled stuffed chicken with vegetables specialty of the city of Béarn in the southwest.
Poule d’Inde: turkey hen.
Poule faisane: female pheasant.
Poulet (rôti): chicken (roast).
basquaise: Basque-style chicken, with tomatoes and sweet peppers.
de Bresse: high-quality chicken raised on farms to exacting specifcations, from the Rhône-Alpes.
de grain: corn-fed chicken.
fermier: free-range chicken.
Poulette: tiny chicken.
Pouligny-Saint-Pierre: village in the Loire valley that gives its name to a goat’s-milk cheese shaped like a truncated pyramid with a mottled, grayish rind and a smooth-grained, ivory-white interior.
Poulpe: octopus.
Pounti: (also spelled pounty) a pork meat loaf that generally includes Swiss chard or spinach, eggs, milk, herbs, onions, and prunes specialty of the Auvergne.
Pousse-en-claire: oysters that have been aged and fattened in claire, or oyster beds, for four to eight months.
Pousse-pierre: edible sea weed also called sea beans.
Poussin: baby chicken.
Poutargue, boutargue: salted, pressed, and flattened mullet roe, generally spread on toast as an appetizer specialty of Provence and the Mediterranean.
Poutine: see Nonat.
Praire: small clam.
Pralin: ground caramelized almonds.
Praline: caramelized almonds.
Pré-salé (agneau de): delicately salted lamb raised on the salt marshes of Normandy and the Atlantic coast.
Presskoph: pork headcheese, often served with vinaigrette specialty of Alsace.
Primeur(s): refers to early fresh fruits and vegetables, also to new wine.
Printanière: garnish of a variety of spring vegetables cut into dice or balls.
Prix fixe: fixed-price menu.
Prix net: service included.
Profiterole(s): classic chou pastry dessert, usually puffs of pastry filled with vanilla ice cream and topped with hot chocolate sauce.
Provençale: in the style of Provence usually includes garlic, tomatoes, and/or olive oil.
Prune (d’ente): fresh plum (variety of plum grown in the famed Agen region of the southwest).
Pruneau: prune.
Puits d’amour: “wells of love” classic small pastry crowns filled with pastry cream.

Quasi (de veau): standing rump (of veal).
Quatre épices: spice blend of ground ginger, nutmeg, white pepper, and cloves.
Quatre-quarts: “four quarters” pound cake made with equal weights of eggs, flour, butter, and sugar.
Quenelle: dumpling, usually of veal, fish, or poultry.
Quetsche: small purple Damson plum.
Queue (de boeuf): tail (of beef oxtail).
Quiche lorraine: savory custard tart made with bacon, eggs, and cream.

Râble de lièvre (lapin): saddle of hare (rabbit).
Raclette: rustic dish, from Switzerland and the Savoie, of melted cheese served with boiled potatoes, tiny pickled cucumbers, and onions also, the cheese used in the dish.
Radis: small red radish.
Radis noir: large black radish, often served with cream, as a salad.
Rafraîchi: cool, chilled, or fresh.
Ragoût: stew usually of meat.
Raie (bouclée): skate or ray, found in the English Channel, Atlantic, and Mediterranean.
Raifort: horseradish.
Raisin: grape raisin.
de Corinthe: currant.
de Smyrne: sultana.
sec: raisin.
Raïto: red wine sauce that generally includes onions, tomatoes, garlic, herbs, olives, and capers, usually served warm over grilled fish specialty of Provence.
Ramequin: small individual casserole. Also, a small tart. Also, a small goat’s-milk cheese from the Bugey, an area in the northern Rhône valley.
Ramier: wood or wild pigeon.
Râpé: grated or shredded.
Rascasse: gurnard, or scorpion fish in the rockfish family an essential ingredient of bouillabaisse, the fish stew of the Mediterranean.
Ratafia: liqueur made by infusing nut or fruit in brandy.
Ratatouille: a cooked dish of eggplant, zucchini, onions, tomatoes, peppers, garlic, and olive oil, served hot or cold specialty of Provence.
Ratte: small, bite-size potatoes, often used for purées.
Ravigote: classic thick vinaigrette sauce with vinegar, white wine, shallots, and herbs. Also, cold mayonnaise with capers, onions, and herbs.
Raviole de Royans: tiny ravioli pasta filled with goat cheese, from the Rhône-Alpes.
Ravioli à la niçoise: square or round pasta filled with meat and/or swiss chard and baked with grated cheese.
Reblochon: smooth, supple, creamy cow’s-milk cheese from the Savoie in the Alps.
Réglisse: licorice.
Reine-Claude: greengage plum.
Reinette, reine de: fall and winter variety of apple, deep yellow with a red blush.
Religieuse, petite: “nun” a small version of a classic pastry consisting of two choux puffs filled with chocolate, coffee, or vanilla pastry cream, placed one on top of another, and frosted with chocolate or coffee icing to resemble a nun in her habit.
Rémoulade (céleri): sauce of mayonnaise, capers, mustard, herbs, anchovies, and gherkins (dish of shredded celery root with mayonnaise).
Repas: meal.
Rhuharbe: rhubarb.
Rhum: rum.
Rigotte: small cow’s-milk cheese from the Lyon region.
Rillettes (d’oie): minced spread of pork (goose) can also be made with duck, fish, or rabbit.
Rillons: usually pork belly, cut up and cooked until crisp, then drained of fat also made of duck, goose, or rabbit.
Ris d’agneau (de veau): lamb (veal) sweetbreads.
Rissolé: browned by frying, usually potatoes.
Riz: rice.
à l’impératrice: cold rice pudding with candied fruit.
complet: brown rice.
de Camargue: nutty, fragrant rice grown in the Camargue, the swampy area just south of Arles in Provence.
sauvage: wild rice.
Rizotto, risotto: creamy rice made by stirring rice constantly in stock as it cooks, then mixing in other ingredients such as cheese or mushrooms.
Robe des champs, robe de chambre (pommes en): potatoes boiled or baked in their skin potatoes in their jackets.
Rocamadour: village in southwestern France which gives its name to a tiny disc of cheese, once made of pure goat’s or sheep’s milk, now generally either goat’s milk or a blend of goat’s and cow’s milk. Also called cabécou.
Rognonnade: veal loin with kidneys attached.
Rognons: kidneys.
Rollot: spicy cow’s-milk cheese with a washed ochre-colored rind, in small cylinder or heart shape from the North.
Romanoff: fruit, often strawberries, macerated in liqueur and topped with whipped cream.
Romarin: rosemary.
Rondelle: round slice--of lemon, for example.
Roquefort: disc of blue veined cheese of raw sheep’s milk from southwestern France, aged in village of Roquefort-sur-Soulzon.
Roquette: rocket or arugula, a spicy salad green.
Rosé: rare used for lamb, veal, duck, or liver. Also, rose-colored wine.
Rosette (de boeuf): large dried pork (beef) sausage, from area around Lyon.
Rôti: roast meat roast.
Rouelle: slice of meat or vegetable cut at an angle.
Rouennaise (canard à la): in the style of Rouen (classic dish of duck stuffed with its liver in a blood-thickened sauce).
Rouget barbet, rouget de roche: red mullet, a prized, expensive rock-fish, with sweet flesh and red skin its flavorful liver is reserved for sauces.
Rouget grondin: red gurnard, a large, common rockfish, less prized than rouget barbet. A variety of galinette. An ingredient in bouillabaisse.
Rougette: a small red-leafed butterhead lettuce, specialty of Provence.
Rouille: mayonnaise of olive oil, garlic, chile peppers, bread, and fish broth usually served with fish soups, such as bouillabaisse.
Roulade: meat or fish roll, or rolled-up vegetable soufflé larger than a paupiette, and often stuffed.
Roulé(e): rolled.
Roussette: dogfish, also called salmonette because of its pinkish skin, found on the Atlantic coast. Good when very fresh.
Roux: sauce base or thickening of flour and butter.
Rove: breed of goat also small round of Provençal soft goat’s cheese, fragrant with wild herbs.
Royale, à la: “royal-style” rich classic preparation, usually with truffles and a cream sauce.
Rumsteck: rump steak.

Sabayon, zabaglione: frothy sweet sauce of egg yolks, sugar, wine, and flavoring that is whipped while being cooked in a water bath.
Sabodet: strong, earthy pork sausage of pig’s head and skin, served hot specialty of Lyon.
Safran: saffron.
Saignant(e): cooked rare, for meat, usually beef.
Saindoux: lard or pork fat.
Saint-Germain: with peas.
Saint-Hubert: poivrade sauce with chestnuts and bacon added.
Saint Jacques, coquille: sea scallop.
Saint-Marcellin: small flat disc of cow’s-milk cheese (once made of goat’s milk) made in dairies in the Isère, outside Lyon. The best is well aged and runny. Found in Paris, the Lyons area, and northern Provence.
Saint-Nectaire: village in the Auvergne that gives its name to a supple, thick disc of cow’s-milk cheese with a mottled gray rind.
Saint-Pierre: John Dory, a prized mild, flat, white ocean fish. Known as soleil and Jean Doré in the North, and poule de mer along the Atlantic coast.
Saint-Vincent: moist, buttery, thick cylinder of cow’s-milk cheese from Burgundy with a rust-colored rind similar to Époisses, but aged a bit longer, therefore stronger.
Sainte-Maure: village in the Loire valley that gives its name to a soft, elongated cylinder of goat’s-milk cheese with a distinctive straw in the middle and a mottled, natural blue rind.
Salade: salad also, a head of lettuce.
folle: mixed salad, usually including green beans and foie gras.
lyonnaise: green salad with cubed bacon and soft-cooked eggs, often served with herring and anchovies, and/or sheep’s feet and chicken livers specialty of Lyon also called saladier lyonnais.
niçoise: salad with many variations, but usually with tomatoes, green beans, anchovies, tuna, potatoes, black olives, capers, and artichokes.
panachée: mixed salad.
russe: cold mixed salad of peas and diced carrots and turnips in mayonnaise.
verte: green salad.
Saladier (lyonnais): see Salade lyonnaise.
Salé: salted.
Salers: Cantal-type cheese, made in rustic cheese-making houses only when the cows are in the Auvergne’s mountain pastures, from May to September.
Salicorne: edible seaweed, sea string bean often pickled and served as a condiment.
Salmis: classic preparation of roasted game birds or poultry, with sauce made from the pressed carcass.
Salpicon: diced vegetables, meat, and/or fish in a sauce, used as a stuffing, garnish, or spread.
Salsifis: salsify, oyster plant.
Sandre: pickerel, perch-like river fish, found in the Saône and Rhine.
Sang: blood.
Sanglier: wild boar.
Sangue: Corsican black pudding usually with grapes or herbs.
Sanguine: “blood” orange, so named for its red juice.
Sansonnet: Starling or thrush.
Sar, sargue: blacktail, a tiny flat fish of the sea bream family best grilled or baked.
Sarcelle: teal, a species of wild duck.
Sardine: small sardine. Large sardines are called pilchards. Found year-round in the Mediterranean, from May to October in the Atlantic.
Sarladaise: as prepared in Sarlat in the Dordogne with truffles.
Sarrasin: buckwheat.
Sarriette: summer savory. See poivre d’ain.
Saucisse: small fresh sausage.
Saucisse chaude: warm sausage.
Saucisse de Francfort: hot dog.
Saucisse de Strasbourg: redskinned hot dog.
Saucisse de Toulouse: mild country-style pork sausage.
Saucisson: most often, a large air-dried sausage, such as salami, eaten sliced as a cold cut when fresh, usually called saucisson chaud, or hot sausage.
Saucisson à l’ail: garlic sausage, usually to be cooked and served warm.
Saucisson d’Arles: dried salami-style sausage that blends pork, beef and gentle seasoning a specialty of Arles, in Provence.
Saucisson de campagne: any country-style sausage.
Saucisson de Lyon: air-dried pork sausage, flavored with garlic and pepper and studded with chunks of pork fat.
Saucisson de Morteau: see Jésus de Morteau.
Saucisson en croûte: sausage cooked in a pastry crust.
Saucisson sec: any dried sausage, or salami.
Sauge: sage.
Saumon (sauvage): salmon (“wild,” to differentiate from commercially raised salmon).
Saumon d’Ecosse: Scottish salmon.
Saumon de fontaine: small, commercially raised salmon.
Saumon fumé: smoked salmon.
Saumon norvégien: Norwegian salmon.
Saumonette: see Roussette.
Saupiquet: classic aromatic wine sauce thickened with bread.
Sauté: browned in fat.
Sauvage: wild.
Savarin: yeast-leavened cake shaped like a ring, soaked in sweet syrup.
Savoie (biscuit de): sponge cake.
Savoyarde: in the style of Savoy, usually flavored with Gruyère cheese.
Scarole: escarole.
Schieffele, schieffala, schifela: smoked pork shoulder, served hot and garnished with pickled turnips or a potato and onion salad.
Sec (sèche): dry or dried.
Seiche: cuttlefish.
Seigle (pain de): rye (bread).
Sel gris: salt, unbleached sea salt.
Sel marin: sea salt.
Sel (gros): coarse salt.
Selle: saddle (of meat).
Selles-sur-Cher: village in the Loire valley identified with a small, flat, truncated cylinder of goat’s-milk cheese with a mottled blueish-gray rind (sometimes patted with powdered charcoal) and a pure-white interior.
Selon grosseur (S.G.): according to size, usually said of lobster or other seafood.
Selon le marché: according to what is in season or available.
Selon poid (S.P.): according to weight, usually said of seafood.
Semoule: semolina or crushed wheat. Also used in France as a savory garnish, particularly in North African dishes such as couscous.
Serpolet: wild thyme.
Service: meal, mealtime, the serving of the meal. A restaurant has two services if it serves lunch and dinner a dish en deux services, like canard pressé. is served in two courses.
Service (non) compris: service charge (not) included in the listed menu prices (but invariably included on the bill).
Service en sus: service charge to be made in addition to menu prices. Same as service non compris.
Simple: simple, plain, unmixed. Also, a single scoop of ice cream.
Smitane: sauce of cream, onions, white wine, and lemon juice.
Socca: a very thin, round crêpe made with chickpea flour, sold on the streets of Nice and eaten as a snack.
Soissons: dried or fresh white beans, from the area around Soissons, northeast of Paris.
Soja (pousse de): soy bean (soy bean sprout).
Soja, sauce de: soy sauce.
Solette: small sole.
Sommelier: wine waiter.
Sorbet: sherbet.
Sot l’y laisse: Poultry oysters translates literally as the 'fool leaves it there'
Soubise: onion sauce.
Soufflé: light, mixture of puréed ingredients, egg yolks, and whipped egg whites, which puffs up when baked sweet or savory, hot or cold.
Soumaintrain: a spicy, supple flat disc of cow’s-milk cheese with a red-brown rind from Burgundy.
Soupir de nonne: “nun’s sighs” fried choux pastry dusted with confectioners’ sugar. Created by a nun in an Alsatian abbey. Also called pet de nonne.
Souris: “mouse” muscle that holds the leg of lamb to the bone lamb shanks.
Spätzel, spaetzle, spetzli: noodle-like Alsatian egg and flour dumpling, served poached or fried.
Spoom: wine or fruit juice mixed with egg whites, whipped, and frozen to create a frothy iced dessert.
Steak-frites: classic French dish of grilled steak served with French-fried potatoes.
Stockfish, stocaficada, estoficada, estoficado, morue plate: flattened, dried cod found in southern France. Also, a purée-like blend of dried codfish, olive oil, tomatoes, sweet peppers, black olives, potatoes, garlic, onions, and herbs specialty of Nice. Sometimes served with pistou.
Strasbourgeoise, à la: ingredients typical of Strasbourg including sauerkraut, foie gras, and salt pork.
Succès à la praline: cake made with praline meringue layers, frosted with meringue and butter cream.
Sucre: sugar.
Supion, supioun, suppion: cuttlefish.
Suprême: a veal- or chicken-based white sauce thickened with flour and cream. Also, a boneless breast of poultry or a filet of fish.

Table d’hôte: open table or board. Often found in the countryside, these are private homes that serve fixed meals and often have one or two guest rooms as well.
Tablette (de chocolat): bar (of chocolate).
Tablier de sapeur: “fireman’s apron” tripe that is marinated, breaded, and grilled specialty of Lyon.
Tacaud: pour or whiting-pour, a small, inexpensive fish found in the Atlantic and Mediterranean, usually fried.
Tagine: spicy North African stew of veal, lamb, chicken, or pigeon, and vegetables.
Talmouse: savory pastry triangle of cheese-flavored choux dough baked in puff pastry.
Tamié: Flat disc of cheese, made of cow’s milk at the Trappist monastery in the Savoie village of Tamié. Similar to Reblochon.
Tanche: tench, a river fish with a mild, delicate flavor often an ingredient in matelote and pauchouse, freshwater fish stews.
Tapenade: a blend of black olives, anchovies, capers, olive oil, and lemon juice, sometimes with rum or canned tuna added specialty of Provence.
Tarama: carp roe, often made into a spread of the same name.
Tarbas: variety of large white bean, usually dried.
Tartare (de poisson): traditionally chopped raw beef, seasoned and garnished with raw egg, capers, chopped onion, and parsley (today, a popular highly seasoned raw fish dish).
Tarte: tart open-face pie or flan, usually sweet.
Tarte encalat: name for cheesecake in the Auvergne.
Tarte flambée: thin-crusted savory tart, much like a rectangular pizza, covered with cream, onions, and bacon specialty of Alsace also called Flammekueche.
Tarte Tatin: caramelized upside-down apple pie, made famous by the Tatin sisters in their hotel in Lamotte-Beuvron, in the Sologne a popular dessert, seen on menus all over France.
Tartine: open-face sandwich buttered bread.
Tasse: cup a coffee or tea cup.
Telline: a tiny violet-streaked clam, the size of a fingernail, seen in Provence and the Camargue generally seared with a bit of oil in a hot pan to open the shells and seasoned with parsley and garlic.
Tendre: tender.
Tendron: cartilaginous meat cut from beef or veal ribs.
Teurgoule: a sweet rice pudding with cinnamon specialty of Normandy.
Terrine: earthenware container used for cooking meat, game, fish, or vegetable mixtures also the pâté cooked and served in such a container. It differs from a pâté proper in that the terrine is actually sliced out of the container, while a pâté has been removed from its mold.
Tête de veau (porc): head of veal (pork), usually used in headcheese.
Tétragone: spinach-like green, found in Provence.
Thé: tea.
Thermidor (homard): classic lobster dish lobster split lengthwise, grilled, and served in the shell with a cream sauce.
Thon (blanc) (germon): tuna (white albacore).
Thon rouge: bluefin tuna.
Thym: thyme.
Tian: an earthenware gratin dish also vegetable gratins baked in such a dish from Provence.
Tiède: lukewarm.
Tilleul: linden tree linden-blossom herb tea.
Timbale: small round mold with straight or sloping slides also, a mixture prepared in such a mold.
Tomates à la provençale: baked tomato halves sprinkled with garlic, parsley, and bread crumbs.
Tomme: generic name for cheese, usually refers to a variety of cheeses in the Savoie also, the fresh cheese used to make Cantal in the Auvergne.
Tomme arlésienne: rectangular cheese made with a blend of goat’s and cow’s milk and sprinkled with summer savory also called tomme de Camargue a specialty of the Languedoc and Arles, in Provence.
Tomme fraîche: pressed cake of fresh milk curds, used in the regional dishes of the Auvergne.
Topinambour: Jerusalem artichoke.
Torréfiée: roasted, as in coffee beans and chocolate.
Toro (taureau): bull meat found in butcher shops in the Languedoc and Pays Basque, and some-times on restaurant menus.
Torteau au fromage: goat cheese cheesecake from the Poitou-Charentes along the Atlantic coast a blackened, spherical loaf found at cheese shops throughout France once a homemade delicacy, today prepared industrially.
Tortue: turtle.
Toucy: village in Burgundy that gives its name to a local fresh goat cheese.
Tourain, tourin, tourrin: generally a peasant soup of garlic, onions (and sometimes tomatoes), and broth or water, thickened with egg yolks and seasoned with vinegar specialty of the southwest.
Tournedos: center portion of beef filet, usually grilled or sautéed.
Tournedos Rossini: sautéed tournedos garnished with foie gras and truffles.
Touron: marzipan loaf, or a cake of almond paste, often layered and flavored with nuts or candied fruits and sold by the slice specialty of the Basque region.
Tourte (aux blettes): pie (common Niçoise dessert pie filled with Swiss chard, eggs, cheese, raisins, and pine nuts). Also, name for giant rounds of country bread found in the Auvergne and the southwest.
Tourteau: large crab.
Tourtière: shallow three-legged cooking vessel, set over hot coals for baking. Also, southwestern pas-try dish filled with apples and/or prunes and sprinkled with Armagnac.
Train de côtes: rib of beef.
Traiteur: caterer delicatessen.
Tranche: slice.
Trappiste: name given to the mild, lactic cow’s-milk cheese made in a Trappist monastery in Echourgnac, in the southwest.
Travers de porc: spareribs.
Trévise: radicchio, a bitter red salad green of the chicory family.
Tripes à la mode de Caen: beef tripe, carrots, onions, leeks, and spices, cooked in water, cider, and Calvados (apple brandy) specialty of Normandy.
Triple crème: legal name for cheese containing more than 75 percent butterfat, such as Brillat-Savarin.
Tripoux: mutton tripe.
Tripoxa: Basque name for sheep’s or calf’s blood sausage served with spicy red Espelette peppers.
Trompettes de la mort: dark brown wild mushroom, also known as “horn of plenty.”
Tronçon: cut of meat or fish resulting in a piece that is longer than it is wide generally refers to slices from the largest part of a fish.
Trouchia: flat omelet filled with spinach or Swiss chard specialty of Provence.
Truffade: a large layered and fried potato pancake made with bacon and fresh Cantal cheese spe-cialty of the Auvergne.
Truffe (truffé): truffle (with truffles).
Truffes sous la cendre: truffles wrapped in pastry or foil, gently warmed as they are buried in ashes.
Truite (au bleu): trout (a preferred method of cooking trout, not live, as often assumed, but rather in a “live condition.” The trout is gutted just moments prior to cooking, but neither washed nor scaled. It is then plunged into a hot mixture of vinegar and water, and the slimy lubricant that protects the skin of the fish appears to turn the trout a bluish color. The fish is then removed to a broth to finish its cooking.)
de lac: lake trout.
de mer: sea trout or brown trout.
de rivière: river trout.
saumoneé: salmon trout.
Ttoro: fish soup from the Basque region. Historically, the liquid that remained after poaching cod was seasoned with herbs and used to cook vegetables and potatoes. Today, a more elaborate version includes the addition of lotte, mullet, mussels, conger eel, langoustines, and wine.
Tuile: literally, “curved roofing tile” delicate almond-flavored cookie.
Tulipe: tulip-shaped cookie for serving ice cream or sorbet.
Turban: usually a mixture or combination of ingredients cooked in a ring mold.
Turbot(in): turbot (small turbot), prized flatfish found in the Atlantic and Mediterranean.

Vache: cow.
Vacherin: dessert of baked meringue, with ice cream and whipped cream. Also a strong, supple winter cheese encircled by a band of spruce, from the Jura.
Vallée d’Auge: area of Normandy. Also, garnish of cooked apples and cream or Calvados and cream.
Vanille: vanilla.
Vapeur, à la: steamed.
Varech: seaweed.
Veau: veal.
Velouté: classic sauce based on veal, chicken, or fish stock, thickened with a roux of butter and flour also, variously seasoned classic soups thickened with cream and egg yolks.
Ventre: belly or stomach.
Ventrèche: pork belly. American clam.
Verdure (en): garnish of green vegetables.
Verdurette: herb vinaigrette.
Vernis: large fleshy clam with small red tongue and shiny varnish-like shell.
Verjus: the juice of unripe grapes, used to make a condiments used much like vinegar in sauces.
Véronique, à la: garnish of peeled white grapes.
Vert-pré: a watercress garnish, sometimes including potatoes.
Verveine: lemon verbena, herb tea.
Vessie, en: cooked in a pig’s bladder (usually chicken).
Viande: meat.
Vichy: with glazed carrots. Also, a brand of mineral water.
Vichyssoise: cold, creamy leek and potato soup.
Viennoise: coated in egg, breaded, and fried.
Vierge (sauce): “virgin” term for the best quality olive oil, from the first pressing of the olives (sauce of olive oil, lemon juice, garlic, tomatoes, and fresh herbs.)
Vieux (vielle): old.
Vieux Lille: thick, square cheese named for the old part of the north’s largest city, made in the same way as Maroilles, with cow’s milk, only salted more, then aged six months until stinking ripe. Also called vieux puant, or “old stinker.”
Vin jaune: an amber yellow wine made in the Jura with late harvested grapes. Stored in oak casks, it can last up to a century.
Vinaigre (vieux): vinegar (aged).
Vinaigre de xérès: sherry vinegar.
Vinaigrette: oil and vinegar dressing.
Viognier: increasingly popular white grape of the Rhône, used for the famed Condrieu .
Violet or figue de mer: unusual iodine-strong, soft-shelled edible sea creature, with a yellowish in-terior. A delicacy along the Mediterranean, particularly in Marseille.
Violet de Provence: braid of plump garlic, a specialty of Provence and the Côte-d’Azur.
Violette: violet its crystallized petals are a specialty of Toulouse.
Viroflay: classic garnish of spinach for poached or soft-cooked eggs.
Vive or vipère de mer: weever a small firm-fleshed ocean fish used in soups, such as bouillabaisse, or grilled. The venomous spine is removed before cooking.
Vol-au-vent: puff pastry shell.
Volonté (à): at the customer’s discretion.
Vonnaissienne, à la: in the style of Vonnas, a village in the Rhône-Alpes. Also, crêpes made with potatoes.

Waterzooi: Flemish chicken stew cooked with aromatic herbs and vegetables in a sauce of cream and chicken broth.

Xérès (vinaigre de): sherry (vinegar).

Yaourt: yogurt.
Yuzu: A pungent, fragrant citrus fruit used in East Asian cooking, particularly Japanese.


Easy Family-Friendly Mains

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Crispy salt-and-pepper chicken skin (page 22)

From Bon Appétit Magazine, October 2015: The Entertaining Issue Bon Appétit Magazine, October 2015

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  • Categories: Appetizers / starters Cooking ahead Dinner parties/entertaining
  • Ingredients: chicken skin pepper kosher salt


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  • Savory Cheese Soufflé
  • Scallops Over Wilted Spinach Parmesan Risotto
  • Crackling Coppa Roast with Fennel and Onions
  • Oysters on the Half Shell with Ceviche Topping
  • Garlic-Crusted Roasted Rack of Lamb
  • Chicken with Smoky Romesco Sauce and Garlicky Greens
  • Steaks with Goulash Sauce & Sweet Potato Fries
  • Veal Stew with Rosemary and Lemons
  • Shiitake and Asparagus Sauté with Poached Eggs
  • Truffled Polenta
  • Lobster mac’n’cheese

Broccoli

Steam broccoli in your microwave if you need a quick side for your chicken dinner. Place broccoli florets in a microwave-safe bowl, add a few tablespoons of chicken broth and cook until tender. If you prefer additional flavor, add fresh cracked pepper and dried herbs. A 1/2-cup serving of steamed broccoli has about 25 calories. You get more than three-fourths of your daily vitamin C requirements from this serving of broccoli. Additionally, broccoli has a small amount of minerals such as calcium and iron, a mineral that aids in oxygen transport.


Why Make Mashed Potatoes in a Slow Cooker?

Using the slow cooker cuts out the “babysitting the boiling pot” step in the process of making mashed potatoes, which can really free you up to concentrate on the rest of your meal. It also eliminates boil overs, draining the potatoes, constantly checking them with a fork to see if they’re tender, using multiple pots and dishes, and gives you another free burner on your stove top. With slow cooker mashed potatoes, you just add everything to the pot and press a button and go. And if you can’t get to them right when the timer goes off, they’ll be okay!


V8 Soup

Two nights ago, I gave a small dinner party at my house. Although the style of my cooking has become rather simple, the aggregate of dishes and the worry behind cooking for the man who is writing Julia Child’s newest biography (to coincide with her 100th birthday next year) and the general manager of what-will-surely be one of New York’s hippest hotels, the Hotel Williamsburg (in Williamsburg!), the pressure was on. Along with their wives, we were a group of six, chatting about world events, the mystery of Mustique, how courses on the Beatles have became mainstream in American colleges (our guest Bob also wrote the definitive book on the Beatles), and the journey of finding a chef for the hippest new hotel in New York. We sipped those apple ginger-pear martinis I keep talking about, ate white hummus, and “devilled pecans” and tried to guess what-the-heck was in the tea cup I served in the living room before sitting down to dinner. More about that in a moment. Dinner began with a dish of “tiradito” the Peruvian equivalent of sashimi but with a shimmering sauce of lemon, garlic and oil. It was accompanied by a tiny timbale of potato salad vinaigrette, a handful of lightly dressed arugula and bits of radicchio (remember when that was exotic?) and a drizzle of beet vinaigrette. The main course was “My Opinionated Way to Roast a Chicken!” with (a foaming chive-garlic butter sauce), Moroccan carrot puree, steamed spinach and a roasted garlic custard. Dessert? A slice of my Venetian Wine Cake (with rosemary, red wine and olive oil — and it is the ONLY recipe I don’t divulge), with lemon-buttermilk sorbet, pineapple flan and creme fraiche. To drink? Rose champagne with the first course and a bottle of almost-impossible-to-find Freemark Abbey Cabernet Sauvignon 1986 with the chicken.

But the real intrigue centered around the soup in the tea cup. I called it “Tomato-Anisette Cappuccino.” Dearly loved, everyone took a guess at identifying its ingredients. But no one would ever make a soup from V8 juice, anisette, and fish sauce, but me. It was topped with salted whipped cream and snippets of fresh tarragon. And it takes only five minutes to make.

Tomato-Anisette Cappuccino
You can make this with “original” or spicy V8. If using the original, you might want to add a few splashes of chipotle Tabasco for more intrigue.

1/2 cup heavy cream
4 cups V8 (or other tomato-vegetable juice cocktail)
1/4 cup anisette liqueur
1 teaspoon Thai fish sauce
snippets of fresh tarragon for garnish

Using a wire whisk, whip the cream with a large pinch of salt until thick but not stiff. Set aside. Put the V8 in a large saucepan. Bring to boil, lower heat to medium and add the anisette. Simmer for 3 minutes. Stir in the fish sauce, salt, pepper and hot sauce, if using. Pour into soup cups and top with whipped cream and tarragon. Serves 4 to 6

Note: And speaking of fish sauce, tomorrow morning I will give you the world’s simplest recipe for fabulous “devilled pecans” — perfect for Super Bowl munching. Make sure you have Thai fish sauce, pecan halves, and sweet butter at the ready.

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Glossary - C

Cabanossi - A salami-type sausage popular in Southern Europe.

Cabra - [Spanish] goat.

Cabrito - [Spanish] unweaned goat suckling goat kid goat usually split and spit roasted whole considered a delicacy in Mexico and the Southwest a favorite dish in northern Mexico, especially at Easter.

Cacahuates - [Spanish] peanuts.

Cactus - The pads and fruits of the Opuntia cactus are cooked and eaten.

Cactus paddle - In the southwest and Mexico, the large, flat, fleshy, oval green pads of the nopal cactus are prepared as a vegetable. When cooked, pieces have the color and translucence of cooked bell pepper, but they are also viscid, like okra. The flavor is something between a bell pepper and artichoke or asparagus or okra.

Cafe - [Spanish] coffee.

Cafe Brulot - Spices and other ingredients flamed with brandy or some other spirits to which hot coffee is added.

Cafe Noir - Black coffee.

Caguama - [Spanish] sea turtle.

Cajeta - [Spanish] originally a little wooden box made to hold sweets burned milk goat's milk caramel goat's milk that has been mixed with sugar and cooked into a brown paste dessert, usually of fruit or milk, cooked with sugar until thick.

Cake cooler - Wire rack.

Cake tin - Baking pan.

Cal - dolomitic lime slaked lime mineral added to corn when making nixtamal masa to loosen the kernels' skins.

Calabacita - [Spanish] squash zucchini. A variety of summer squash found in Latin American and Mexican cooking.

Calabaza - [Spanish] pumpkin. This pumpkin-like winter squash, usually sold in slices or hunks in markets catering to Central and South Americans. Also known as West Indian pumpkin, calabaza is quite frequently better than pumpkin when cooked in the same way.

Calamares - [Spanish] squid.

Calamari - Italian and [Spanish] squid.

Calamata olives - Purple-black Greek olives of generally high quality. Also spelled kalamata olives.

Caldero - [Spanish] heavy kettle.

Caldillo - [Spanish] little soup thick stew with beef and chiles commonly served in El Paso and Juarez.

Caldo (caldillo) - [Spanish] broth, stock or clear soup.

Caldo de cerdo - [Spanish] pork broth.

Caldo Verde - A Portuguese soup made from a sharp flavored cabbage, potatoes, broth, and olive oil. Sausage is then cooked in the soup.

Calf fries - [Spanish] ranch treat of quick-fried calf scrotum also called mountain oysters.

Callo de hacha - [Spanish] pinna clam.

Calzone - [Italian> "trousers." A half-moon shaped pizza turnover, often served with sauce over the top rather than inside.

Camarones (camaron) - [Spanish] shrimps shrimp.

Camote - [Spanish] yam sweet potato.

Campechana - [Spanish] blend or mixture.

Canadian bacon - The large rib-eye muscle of the pork loin, cured and smoked. It is boneless and more lean than streaky bacon, making it a good ham substitute for those watching their fat intake.

Canape - [French] plain or toasted bread or crackers topped with a savory mixture. Usually served as appetizers, with cocktails, snacks or for lunch. They may be served hot or cold, they are often elaborately garnished.

Canard - [French] duck.

Candied - Cooked in sugar or syrup until transparent and well-coated.

Candied ginger - Found in Asian markets.

Candy thermometer - Cooking tool comprised of a large glass mercury thermometer that measures temperatures from about 40 degrees F to 400 degrees F. A frame or clip allows it to stand or hang in a pan during cooking for accurate temperature measurement.

Cane syrup - A sweet, dark brown, very thick sugar cane syrup, tasting something like dark brown sugar.

Canela - [Spanish] cinnamon Ceylon cinnamon lighter in color and more subtle in flavor than cinnamon sold in the United States dried inner bark of the "Cinnamomum zeylanicum: tree, which was brought to Mexico from Sri Lanka canela sticks have a rough, torn appearance, and its soft surface grinds easily in spice mills and blenders.

Caneton - [French] duckling.

Canned cowboy - Canned milk - a term from the American West.

Cannellini beans - [Italian] large, creamy white bean often included in Italian cooking. Also known as Northern beans, this legume makes an excellent vegetarian substitute for both fish and chicken due to its rich texture.

Cannelloni - [Italian] large tubular-shaped noodles usually served stuffed. An Italian dish made of sheets or tubes of pasta filled with meat, cheese or fish, sauced and baked au gratin. Variations of this use thin pancakes, called crespelle, which are similar to crepes and are filled and cooked in the same manner as the pasta.

Cannoli - [Italian] a crisp pastry tube filled with sweetened ricotta cheese, chocolate chips, and candied fruit. Cinnamon and vanilla are common flavorings for this cheese mixture.

Canola oil - This neutral is your best choice for cooking because it is inexpensive, extremely low in saturated fats, has a high burning point, and does not detract from the flavor of food with which it is combined.

Cantina - [Spanish] bar.

Capeado - [Spanish] covered with batter and fried.

Capers - Pickled hyssop buds which is used in sauces and as condiments for smoked fish and nicoise salad. Sold packed in vinegar or in salt. Small pickled flower of a shrub though to have originated in the Sahara Desert or in the Orient Mexican capers are large Italian capers may be substituted.

Capicolla - A coarse Italian pork sausage. Usually highly seasoned, this sausage is served cold, thinly sliced, as for prosciutto.

Capirotada - [Spanish] bread pudding usually served during Lent and Holy Week (Easter).

Capon - A castrated rooster that is savored for its delicate taste and texture. Once castrated, the chicken would become fattened, yielding tender, juicy flesh. This method of raising chickens is not practiced much anymore, since most chickens are butchered at a young age and still very tender.

Caponata - [Italian] Best known as a spread or cold salad containing eggplant, celery, tomatoes, raisins, and pine nuts seasoned with vinegar and olive oil. Modern variations will add other vegetables such as zucchini and season it with fresh herbs.

Capons - Castrated cocks, weighing 6 to 7 pounds or more, these birds are especially desirable for roasting when a large bird is in order.

Capsicum - The family name for sweet and hot peppers. Large pepper with a slightly sweet flavor. Also called a pepper, or sweet pepper. Available in green (most common), red and yellow.

Carambola (star fruit) - Originally from Indonesia, this is one of the most recent tropical imports, now grown in Florida and found in most supermarkets. It has yellow, near-translucent skin (which is tough but edible), and slices take the shape of a star. Best eaten raw, but also takes well to grilling.

Caramelize - To slowly dissolve sugar (granulated or brown) in water, then heat the resulting syrup until it turns caramel-brown in color. Caramelized sugar is sometimes called burnt sugar.

Caraway seed - Curved, anise-like seed popular in German and Austrian cooking. Caraway is a member of the parsley family. Seeds are used as topping on breads and savory pastries, and as accompaniments to cabbage and goulash. Caraway seed is also utilized in preparing some cheeses and liqueurs.

Carbon - [Spanish] charcoal.

Carbonade - Braised or grilled, or sometimes stewed meat.

Carbonara - An ultra-rich pasta sauce consisting of pancetta, eggs, and parmesan cheese. Actually less of a sauce than a preparation, hot pasta is tossed with the rendered pancetta fat, the eggs, and then the cheese. Crisp pancetta and black pepper are tossed into the pasta just before serving.

Cardamom - Aromatic seeds used for baking, flavoring coffee and exotic Scandinavian and Indian dishes. Excellent when freshly ground. Botanical name - Elettaria cardamomum.

Cardinal - Fish dishes which have sauces made with lobster fumet and are garnished with lobster meat.

Cardoon - Cardoons are the thick, fleshy stalks of a plant in the thistle family very similar to artichokes. It looks like very large, coarse, matte-gray celery. Popular in Italy, France and South America. Cardoons may be eaten raw or cooked and served like any vegetable.

Caribe chiles - Flaked red chiles.

Carne - In Italian and Spanish meaning meat.

Carne adovada - [Spanish] meat cured in red chile sauce traditional New Mexican dish.

Carne asada - [Spanish] marinated, broiled meat in Sonora, Mexico means a picnic or cookout where meat is broiled.

Carne de res - [Spanish] beef.

Carne mechada - [Spanish] pot roast.

Carne seca - [Spanish] dried beef or jerky was a trail food utilized on the range.

Carnitas - [Spanish] little pieces of meat small chunks of pork which have been seasoned, slow-cooked, and fried crisp in their own fat it is a traditional taco and enchilada filling.

Carob - The seed from the carob tree which is dried, ground, and used primarily as a substitute for chocolate.

Carpaccio - An Italian dish (usually served as an appetizer), made of paper thin slices of beef dressed with olive oil and parmesan cheese. Slices of raw white truffles are an excellent partner to this dish.

Cascabel chiles - [Spanish] Little rattler jingle bells sleigh bells small, round, hot chiles that rattle when shaken measure about 1 1/2 to 2 inches across and have smooth skins woodsy chile with tones of hazelnut, citrus and tobacco, gives off a wonderful aroma when roasted great in stews, soups, salsas, salad dressing and vinaigrettes blend well with apples, pears and other fruits and with spices such as star anise, canela and cinnamon rbol chiles may be substituted.

Casserole - [French] A meat, fish and/or vegetable dish which is cooked and served in the same pot.

Cassoulet - A dish from southwest France consisting of white beans and an assortment of meats like confit, lamb, pork, and Toulouse sausage. The dish is enriched with large amounts of duck fat and is baked until the top is brown and crispy. Variations of this dish include seafood and lentils. This dish is very substantial and needs nothing else to be served with it but a bitter green salad to cut through the richness.

Castor/Caster sugar - A very fine granulated sugar. Similar to U.S. superfine sugar. It is great for baking. Caster sugar can be made from regular granulated sugar by running it through a coffee mill, a Magic Bullet, or a blender. DO NOT confuse it with powdered/confectioners' sugar.

Catfish - Popular white-fleshed fish with a medium-firm texture. Farm raised catfish, widely available in supermarkets and fish stores, don't have the muddy taste that distinguish their wild counterparts. Look for fresh catfish with white rather than grayish flesh.

Catsup - Tomato ketchup.

Caul Fat - The stomach lining of pork which is used in place of back fat for pates and to encase crepinettes.

Caviar - These are the eggs of sturgeon that have been salted and cured. Grading for caviar is determined by the size and color of the roe and the species of the sturgeon. Beluga caviar, which is the most expensive of the three types of caviar, are dark gray in color and are the largest eggs. Ossetra caviar are light to medium brown and are smaller grains than beluga. Sevruga caviar are the smallest grains, the firmest in texture and are also gray in color. Pressed caviar is made of softer, lower quality eggs and have a stronger, fishier flavor. The term malossol is used to describe the amount of salt used in the initial curing process. The roe from other fish such as salmon, lumpfish, and whitefish are not considered caviar, regardless of their label. They should be addressed as roe. Caviar should be served as simply as possible. Traditional accompaniments, inspired by the Russians, are sour cream, blinis, and ice cold vodka. Lemon and minced onion are often served with caviar, but their flavors will only detract from the pure delicate flavor of the caviar.

Cayenne - Cayenne pepper is used to describe almost any hot, finely ground red chile pepper, but it was named after several tropical varieties that originated in Cayenne in French Guiana. A dried chile, they is also known as ginnie peppers 3 to 8 inches long and slender, measuring about 1/2 inch across fiery chiles that can be used in soups and stews, but are most commonly ground and used as a seasoning chiles de arbol are closely related and may be substituted.

Cazon - [Spanish] dogfish.

Cazuelas - glazed or unglazed Mexican casserole-style dishes ideal for long, slow cooking, either in the oven or on top of the stove can also be used as serving dishes.

Cebada - [Spanish] barley.

Cebolla - [Spanish] onion.

Cebollitas - [Spanish] scallions green onions.

Cecina - [Spanish] salted, cured or smoked dried meat strips similar to carne seca.

Cena - [Spanish] supper.

Celeriac - A European celery with a thick stem base, which can be prepared in the same way beets are. it is also called celery root, celery knob and turnip-rooted celery. This knobby, brown vegetable is the root of a special celery cultivated specifically for its root, with a firm texture and a clean, sweet flavor of celery. Celeriac must be peeled before using.

Cellophane Noodles - Noodles made from the mung bean, the same bean from which bean sprouts grow. Find in oriental markets and some supermarkets. Also called glass noodles, sai fun, bean threads and long rice.

Cepes - A wild mushroom of the boletus family known for their full flavor and meaty texture.

Cerdo - [Spanish] pork.

Cerveza - [Spanish] beer.

Ceviche - [Spanish] raw seafood combined with lime juice the juice "cooks" the seafood by combining with its protein and turning it opaque.

Chai - The Indian name for tea, often served with milk and sugar.

Chalotes - [Spanish] shallots.

Chalupa compuesta - [Spanish] adorned little boat a very popular dish in Arizona.

Chalupas - [Spanish] little boats or little canoes fried corn tortillas in the shape of a boat or basket containing shredded chicken or beans topped with salsa, guacamole or cheese.

Champ - a classic Irish dish that combines vegetables with hot mashed potatoes. It is made by mixing either peas, chives or sauteed onions or spinach into hot mashed potatoes, then making a depression in the center of each serving and filling with melted butter. To eat it, you dip each forkful into the butter first.

Champignon - [French] mushroom found as the champignon de Paris. Cultivated button-shaped white mushroom.

Champurrado - [Spanish] a drink, atole (corn gruel) with chocolate.

Chanterelle - A wild mushroom with a golden color and a funnel-shaped cap. The whole mushroom is edible and is savored for its exquisite flavor and firm texture when cooked.

Chanterelle - Available both wild and domesticated, this is a good, fleshy mushroom with subtle flavor.

Chantilly - [French] This is a name for sweetened whipped cream flavored with vanilla. The term may also be used to describe sauces that have had whipped cream folded into them. This includes both sweet and savory sauces.

Chapati - A whole wheat Indian flatbread that can be grilled or fried.

Charcuterie - The French word for the variety of pork preparations that are cured, smoked, or processed. This includes sausages, hams, pates, and rillettes. This term may also imply the shop in which these products are sold and the butchers who produce it.

Chard - Essentially beets grown for leaves rather than roots, chard has a thick white, pink, or red midrib and leaves that vary from deep green to green with scarlet veins. Chard has a distinctive, acid-sweet flavor.

Charlie Taylor - a butter substitute of sorghum and bacon grease.

Charlotte - The name for two different desserts. The first preparation is made of slices of bread which are lined in a mold, filled with fruit, and baked until the bread acquires a golden color and crisp texture. The second version, similar to the first, lines a mold with cake or lady fingers and is filled with a Bavarian cream. These may also be filled with whipped cream or even a fruit mousse. More elaborate versions layer the cake with jam, then slices of this cake is used to line the mold.

Charlotte mould - A plain mold for charlottes and other desserts, sometimes used for molded gelatin-based salads.

Charmoula - A sauce and marinade used in Middle Eastern cooking made of stewed onions flavored with vinegar, honey and a spice mixture called "rasel hanout." This is a complex spice mixture containing cinnamon, black pepper, cloves, cumin and sometimes paprika and coriander. This sauce is used on meat and fish and can even be adjusted to make a unique vinaigrette.

Chasseur - [French] a sauce made with wine, mushrooms and shallots.

Chateaubriand Steak - A very fillet of beef, exceedingly tender and juicy, cut laterally from the heart of the tenderloin, grilled or saut ed and simply sauced. Many restaurants claim their chateaubriand to be the head of the tenderloin, cut for two, which is roasted and carved tableside.

Chaud-Froid - Meat or fish that has been poached or roasted, chilled and served cold, masked with a thick sauce and glazed with aspic. The whole preparation was once quite popular and used consistently on elaborate buffets. Modern tastes have moved away from this style of food, opting for cleaner, less adulterated flavors.

Chauquehue - [Spanish] blue cornmeal mush.

Chayote - Also called mirliton, vegetable pear and christophine. A pear shaped, pale or apple green squash (it actually is a form of summer squash), with firm flesh of a paler green. The taste is reminiscent of a cucumber. It is a relative of the gourd. If small, they do not require peeling. They are used in Latin American cooking. Chayote may be eaten raw or cooked as you would any summer squash. Also referred to as the cho-cho. Chayotes should be not just firm, but downright hard and dark green for the best flavor. Stored in the vegetable bin they'll keep for weeks.

Cheddar - Cheese which is mild in flavor and melts easily, it is a favorite in many Southwestern dishes Longhorn cheese is a very good substitute, and it is usually a little less expensive.

Cheese - Most cheeses derive from milk (usually cow, sheep or goat), jolted by a "startar" culture, then thickened by the addition of rennet (animal or vegetable) until it separates into curds (semi-solids) and whey (liquid).

Artisanal cheese: Made by hand, in small quantities, with respect for cheese-making traditions frequently farmstead, but sometimes using others' known herds.

Blue-veined: Inoculated or sprayed with spores to create veins and pockets of bluish-green mold (stilton, roquefort, gorgonzola, Maytag blue).

Cooked, pressed: Curd cooked before pressing (parmigiano reggiano, gouda, gruyere).

Farmstead cheese: Made by using only the milk from the cheese-maker's own herds.

Fresh: Unripened or slightly ripened curds (ricotta, farmer, cottage, mascarpone).

Hard: Cooked, pressed and long-aged (parmigiano reggiano, pecorino)

Natural-rind: Self-formed thin rinds, no molds or washing (English stilton, mimolette, tomme de savoie).

Processed cheese: Some amount of cheese cooked together with dyes, gums, emulsifiers and stabilizers (American cheese, Laughing Cow, rambol).

Raw-milk cheese: Made with unpasteurized milk (parmigiano reggiano, Swiss gruyere, French roquefort, traditional cheddars).

Ripened (aged): The drained curds are cured by heat, bacteria and soaking. Salt, spices and herbs or natural dyes (certain cheddars) may be added. Aging in a controlled environment begins.

Semifirm: Cooked and pressed, but not so long-aged, not crumbly (edam, jarlsberg).

Semisoft: Either cooked or uncooked, soft, but sliceable (gouda, tilsit, monterey jack).

Soft-ripened (bloomy rind): The surface is exposed to molds, ripening the cheese from the outside in, to form thin, velvety rinds (brie, camembert).

Washed-rind: Frequently orange, rinds washed or rubbed with brine, wine, beer or brandy (pont l'eveque, tallegio, Spanish mahon).

Uncooked, pressed: Curds not cooked but pressed to obtain a firm texture (Cheddar, morbier, mont asio, manchego).

Cheese (Mexican) - Queso Blanco: This creamy white cheese is made from skimmed cow's milk. When it is heated, it becomes soft and creamy but doesn't melt. It is ideal for stuffing burritos and enchiladas.

Queso cotija: Sharp, firm and good for grating. Simply sprinkle it on top of beans, chili or other dishes to enhance their flavor.

Queso fresco: Usually made from a combination of cow's milk and goat's milk, it tastes like a mild feta cheese. It crumbles easily and tastes good in salads or with beans.

Queso Oaxaca: Also known as quesillo, this soft, mild cheese is perfect for quesadillas. It is similar in texture to string cheese, and should e pulled apart into thin strings before being put on the tortilla.

Queso panela: This soft white cheese often is served as part of an appetizer or snack tray. It absorbs other flavors easily. Like queso blanco, it doesn't melt.

Cherimoya - Also called the custard apple. A Native American fruit, now grown in California, with a creamy white interior and sweet pineapple flavor, with the consistency of banana tastes like a cross between banana and pineapple has a hard brown shell, and the flesh is dotted with black seeds that must be removed before ea ting. Ancient Aztec and Peruvian Indians knew of this fruit. Eat with a spoon.

Cherry Tomatoes - Miniature sweet tomatoes available in colors of red, orange and yellow. Store cherry tomatoes in the same way as full-size tomatoes, at room temperature for up to 3 days.

Chervil - A mild-flavored member of the parsley family, this aromatic herb has curly, dark green leaves with an elusive anise flavor. Though most chervil is cultivated for its leaves alone, the root is edible and was, in fact, enjoyed by early Greeks and Romans. Today it is available dried but has the best flavor when fresh. Both forms can be found in most supermarkets. It can be used like parsley but its delicate flavor can be diminished when boiled.

Chestnut - Mealy, but rich with an earthy taste, a delicious nut, almost always imported and usually found in autumn. Traditionally served as a vegetable. Peeling its hard, dark brown shell and bitter inner skin takes some effort but is worth it. Chestnuts can also be roasted.

Chevre - [French] goat, generally referring to goat's milk cheeses.

Chiboust - A custard made originally as the filling for the gateaux Saint-Honor, consisting of pastry cream lightened with Italian meringue and stabilized with gelatin.

Chicharo - [Spanish] pea.

Chicharron - Crispy fried pigskin used in Mexican cooking for salads, fillings and snacks.

Chicharrones (chicharron) - [Spanish] pork cracklings crisp-fried pork rinds.

Chicken Maryland - In Australia refers to chicken leg with both thigh and drumstick attached. In the US, refers to any parts of chicken, crumbed, browned in hot fat, baked and served with cream gravy.

Chicken, broilers - Also called fryers or broiler-fryers, these are young chickens weighing from 1 1/2 to 4 pounds. They can be broiled, saut ed, fried, roasted, and braised.

Chicken, roasters - These are somewhat older and larger chickens (3 to 5 pounds), delicious when roasted, poached, or braised.

Chicken, squab - The poussins of France, these are mere babies weighing about a pound and sufficient for one person. They are unusually tender and delicate and are best when roasted whole or split and broiled.

Chicken, stewing - Also called mature, old chickens, or hens, these should be poached or simmered.

Chicken steak - A small, very tender and flavorful steak cut from the shoulder blade.

Chicken stock - A chicken soup or stock made from chicken backs and necks, carrots, yellow onions, celery and salt and pepper and allowed to simmer for at least an hour. Then strained.

Chickpeas - Also called garbanzo beans, chickpeas are nutty-tasting, relatively large legumes.

Chicories - These are sharp crunchy greens (closely related to endives) that vary wildly in appearance, but much less so in taste and texture. Tight-headed, bright red radicchio long, green, leafy radicchio lettuce-looking escarole and lacy frilly fris e are all crunchy and feature a stark bitterness tamed by cooking or smoothed by olive oil.

Chicory - the white root of a variety of perennial herbs (related to radicchio and curly endive) that is dried, roasted and ground, then combined with coffee for a distinctive taste. Caffeine-averse Germans discovered that chicory could be processed into a coffee substitute.

Chicos - [Spanish] corn kernels that are roasted, steamed in a horno, then dried they are not treated with lime may be cooked for hours to serve as a vegetable, or ground into harinella, which may be used interchangeably with Masa Harina.

Chiffonade - [French] a very fine julienne of vegetables usually associated with leafy herbs, lettuces, or greens.

Chihuahua (queso menonita) - Cheese which is white and creamy was created by Mennonites in Mexico, and they still produce the finest version, queso menonita has a slightly spongy texture and a buttery flavor melts easily Muenster or a mild white Cheddar can be substituted.

Chilaca chile - fresh pasilla chiles long, thin and dark green.

Chilaquiles - [Spanish] broken-up old sombreros, a reference to the appearance of the dish considered a good way to use up stale tortillas a family-style casserole of tortilla strips, salsa, meat and/or cheese, most often served for breakfast it is very difficult to find in restaurants. This is a highly seasoned dish, often served as a brunch or lunch dish with eggs or grilled meats.

Chile, hot pepper - The plants or pods of the Capsicum genus.

Chile ancho - wide chile pepper refers to the broad, flat heart-shaped dried pod in its fresh green form is known as poblano chile.

Chile caribe - red chile paste made from crushed or ground red chiles, garlic and water liquid fire.

Chile Colorado - red chile usually refers to ancho or New Mexico dried chiles or the stew made with them.

Chile con queso - [Spanish] cheese and green chile dip.

Chile en polvo - [Spanish] powdered chile.

Chile pasado - [Spanish] chile of the past roasted, peeled and sun-dried green chiles.

Chile paste - Sometimes labeled "chili-garlic paste." This hot condiment is made with chiles, salt and garlic. it is available in Asian markets and many supermarkets, and will keep almost indefinitely if refrigerated.

Chile pequin (chilipiquin chiltepin chili tepins) - small, dried, quite hot red chiles common names are bird pepper, chile bravo and chile mosquito the size and shape of a cranberry range in color from immature green to orange to very ripe brick red grows wild in southerly regions of the Southwest cayenne powder or hot red chile powder may be substituted.

Chile powder - Ground, dried red chiles.

Chile seco - [Spanish] fried red serrano chile.

Chileatole - [Spanish] masa soup.

Chiles ahumados - [Spanish] smoked chiles now called chipotle.

Chiles de arbol - Treelike chile de rbol small, thin, 2 to 3 inch long (including the stems), very hot dried chile usually ground into a powder for use in chile sauces go well with tomatoes, tomatillos, citrus, and herbs such as rosemary and oregano common Mexican names are pico de pajaro (bird's beak) and cola de rata (rat's tail).

Chiles en polvo - [Spanish] powdered chiles.

Chiles rellenos - [Spanish] stuffed chiles which are then battered and deep-fried.

Chiles secos - [Spanish] dried chiles.

Chilhuacle - a chile found almost exclusively in Oaxaca one of the main ingredients of Oaxaca's renowned mole negro the chiles are very expensive.

Chili - chile sauce with meat chili con carne.

Chili Colorado - [Spanish] red chili.

Chili con carne - [Spanish] "chili with meat," this dish is a mixture of diced or ground beef and chiles or chili powder (or both). It originated in the Lone Star State and Texans, who commonly refer to it as "a bowl of red." They consider it a crime to add beans to the mixture. In many parts of the country, however, beans are used, and the dish is called "chili con carne with beans."

Chili powder - Mixture of ground, dried red chiles blended with other spices and herbs. Chili powder may be ground-up chiles, or it is a seasoning mixture of garlic, onion, cumin, oregano, coriander, cloves, and/or other spices.

Chili sauce - A thick tomato sauce similar to catsup, but spicier it has bits of whole tomato, onion and other seasonings added. It is used like catsup when a more distinct flavor is desired. Store as you would catsup.

Chili verde - [Spanish] green chili.

Chilling - Process of cooling prepared or partially prepared food, without freezing it, in a refrigerator.

Chilorio - [Spanish] cooked and shredded meat, fried with a paste of ground chiles and other seasoning.

Chilpachole - [Spanish] crab soup from Veracruz.

Chiltepins (chilipiquins) - Small, round, wild chile that grows in Arizona in Texas there is a wild variety called chilipiqu n.

Chimichanga - [Spanish] stuffed burro fried in deep fat, then topped with cheese, guacamole and chile sauce found almost exclusively in Arizona.

Chimiquito - [Spanish] stuffed and fried flour tortilla it is rolled like a flauta or taquito rather than being wrapped like a burrito or chimichanga.

Chimpachole (chilpachole) - [Spanish] spicy, rich crab stew.

Chinese cabbage - These cabbages have oblong heads with thin, juicy, flavorful leaves - as compared to the round-headed common cabbage with thick, mild leaves. The most commonly found Chinese cabbage in the market is Napa cabbage, which is a pale green, romaine-like variety. Mild celery-shaped bok choy is another variety of Chinese cabbage. See Bok choy.

Chinese parsley - Also called cilantro and coriander.

Chining - Meat carving process whereby the backbone is separated from the ribs in a join to make carving easier.

Chinois - [French] Chinese. Also refers to a "China Cap," a very fine mesh, conical strainer.

Chip wagon - A wagon which carried campfire "prairie coal."

Chipotle chiles - Chiles that take their name from the Aztec words for chile and smoke a term for any smoked chile normally a smoked, dried jalapeno with a wrinkled appearance, similar to a dried mushroom some chipotles are pickled and canned in adobo sauce go well with orange and other citrus flavors, balsamic and sherry vinegars, and herbs such as cilantro and basil moritas, smoked serranos, may be substituted. These chiles are extremely hot and caution should be taken when using them in cooking.

Chipped beef - Wafer-thin slices of salted and smoked, dried beef usually packed in small jars and were once an American staple. Chipped beef is also referred to simply as dried beef.SOSis military slang used for creamed chipped beef served on toast.

Chiquihuite - [Spanish] woven basket for holding tortillas.

Chive - Related to the onion and leek, this fragrant herb has slender, vivid green, hollow stems. Chives have a mild onion flavor and are available fresh year-round. They are a good source of vitamin A and also contain a fair amount of potassium and calcium.

Chocolate - A product of cocoa beans in which the chocolate liquor is mixed with cocoa butter in various proportions to produce the different varieties of chocolate. Unsweetened (bitter) chocolate has no additional ingredients added and comes packaged as squares-eight 1 ounce squares to the package. Other varieties of chocolate have additional cocoa butter added, along with sugar, milk, and vanilla. Semisweet chocolate comes in bars or packages of squares, or in bags of pieces. Milk Chocolate is smooth, light and sweet, it primarily an eating chocolate. Chocolate may be stored for about 1 year if wrapped tightly and kept in a cool dry place. If the storage place is too warm or moist a grayish film may develop on the chocolate. This is the fat in the chocolate, which melts and rises to the surface. The film does not harm the flavor but it affects the color and sometimes the texture. Chocolate may also be refrigerated up to 3 months if wrapped tightly, but will become brittle and should be used in melted form.

UNSWEETENED (Bitter): Chocolate liquor that has no sugar added to it. It has a cocoa butter content between 50% and 58%. It is usually used for baking.

SWEET: Unsweetened chocolate with sugar added. It is often used in dessert recipes. The two most common forms are:

SEMI-SWEET (higher sugar content): Contains 15-35% chocolate liquor.

BITTERSWEET (lower sugar content): 35% chocolate liquor.

MILK: Sweetened chocolate with milk solids (or cream) added. It's usually eaten as is or used for candy making.

WHITE: Not really a chocolate at all because it doesn't contain chocolate liquor. It usually is made from sugar, cocoa butter, milk solids, lecithin, and vanilla. It is used in candy making, baking, and desserts.

Chocolate, Mexican - block Mexican chocolate frequently contains cinnamon, vanilla, clove and ground almonds Ibarra is one of the best brands.

Chocolate sauce - Chocolate syrup to which milk, cream, and/or butter has been added, making it richer and thicker than the syrup.

Chocolate syrup - Sweetened liquid chocolate. use as topping for desserts or as an ingredient in beverages.

Chongos - [Spanish] a dessert of cooked milk curds.

Chorizo - A spicy pork sausage from all Hispanic countries, ranging in seasoning from mild and sweet to fiercely hot. Hotter versions come from areas of Spain and Portugal. Mexican versions contain a large variety of chiles and have a mealier texture and more complex flavor. Some of them even use fresh herbs giving it a green color. Portugal makes a cousin to this sausage called the linguisa, that is smoked and much hotter. Spicy sausage made with pork, garlic and red chile powder, available both in bulks and in links Mexican chorizo is sold fresh and is often cooked to add to fillings and egg dishes.

Choron - A variation of Bearnaise sauce with tomato puree or concasse added.

Choucroute - [French] an Alsatian specialty consisting of sauerkraut that is simmered with assorted fresh and smoked meats and sausages. This is a grand dish served on huge platters so that diners may witness all of the components displayed at one time. The kraut is first washed, then seasoned with garlic, caraway seeds, and white wine. The meats are layered in the casserole with the kraut and cooked until all the meat is tender and the flavors have blended together. Pork sausages, smoked pork shanks and shoulders, and fresh pork loin are all used. A variation of this, though not actually called a choucroute, is a whole pheasant cooked in sauerkraut with champagne. There are other recipes that consist of solely fish in with the sauerkraut. This can be quite delicious if properly prepared.

Choux pastry - Also called choux paste or cream puff pastry. Flour, butter and water are cooked on the stove top before the pastry is shaped, baked until fluffy, then filled.

Chowder - A thick soup or a stew made of shellfish, fish or vegetables. The term “chowder” comes from the French chaudi re, meaning “boiler.” Fishermen cooked their food fresh from the sea in these large kettles.

Chuck - A cut of beef from the region of the shoulder, neck, and upper back, slightly tough. Thus best used for braising and stewing, or for grinding into hamburger. Cowboy's word for any food.

Chuck wagon - kitchen on wheels used on the range.

Chuck wagon chicken - bacon also called Kansas City fish.

Chuleta - [Spanish] chop or cutlet, lamb, pork or veal.

Churros - [Spanish] deep-fried cakes named for the shaggy, long-haired Mexican sheep they resemble.

Chutney - The name for a large range of sauces, jams or relishes used in East Indian cooking. Fresh chutneys have a bright, clean flavor and are usually thin, smooth sauces. Cilantro, mint, and tamarind are common in fresh chutney. Cooked chutneys have a deeper, broader flavor. Chutney ranges from chunky to smooth and mild to hot.

Cider - A drink almost always made from pressed apples. To many people, but not all, it is alcoholic. In the US usage is typically that "cider" is not alcoholic and "hard cider" is.

Cilantro - A green herb, similar in appearance to parsley. Also sold dry as seeds, leaves and ground. An essential ingredient to Asian and Mexican dishes. It can be found in Asian as well as Mexican markets and most large supermarkets. Also known as fresh coriander, Mexican parsley and Chinese parsley. It resembles flat-leaf parsley, but the flavor is strong and fresh the seeds are known as coriander cilantro is commonly used in salsas and soups was first introduced to the Mexican Indians by the Spanish.

Cinnamon - Known in spanish as canela the inner back from shoots of a tree called "Cinnamomum zeylanicum" used in Mexican dishes that are sweet and savory available in tightly rolled dry quills (sticks) or ground.

Cioppino - A rich fish stew from San Francisco made with shrimp, clams, mussels, crabs, and any available fish. The broth is flavored with tomato, white wine, garlic, and chile flakes. This stew needs no other courses served but a simple green salad and a lot of sourdough bread.

Ciruelas - [Spanish] plums.

Citric Acid - also known as "sour salt." A white powder extracted from the juice of citrus and other acidic fruits (such as lemons, limes, pineapples and gooseberries). It's also produced by the fermentation of glucose. Citric acid has a strong, tart taste and is used as a flavoring agent .

Civet - A French stew usually containing game, though duck and goose are used. The meat is marinated in red wine for long periods of time, then stewed with pearl onions and bacon. The sauce was once thickened with blood, but that is a method not used much anymore.

Clabber - Milk which has soured to the point where it is thick and curdy but not separated.

Clafouti - A dessert of fruit, originally cherries, covered with a thick batter and baked until puffy. The dessert can be served hot or cold.

Clarified butter - The upper portion, clear, liquefied and oil-like, of butter when it has been allowed to melt slowly and stand without heat until the solids have precipitated. In India, it is called ghee.

Clarify - To clear fats by heating and filtering to clear consommes and jellies with beaten egg white.

Clava de especia - [Spanish] clove.

Claveteado - [Spanish] spiked or studded with cloves.

Clavitos - [Spanish] little nails tiny wild mushrooms.

Clavo - [Spanish] clove.

Clotted Cream - This specialty of Devonshire, England (which is why it is also known as Devon cream) is made by gently heating rich, unpasteurized milk until a semisolid layer of cream forms on the surface. After cooling the thickened cream is removed. It can be spread on bread or spooned atop fresh fruit or desserts. The traditional English "cream tea" consists of clotted cream and jam served with scones and tea. Clotted cream can be refrigerated, tightly covered, for up to four days.

Cloud Ear/Tree Ear - Thin, brownish-black mushrooms with a subtle, woodsy taste A good addition to stir-fries. Available in dried form in Asian markets and may supermarkets. They become ear-shaped and five times as big when soaked in warm water. Tree ears are the larger variety an albino type is called silver ears. May be sold under the name "wood ear mushrooms."

Cloves - Brown, hard dried flower buds of an aromatic Southeast Asian evergreen. Cloves are useful in both whole and ground forms. Ground cloves are used in the preparation of many cakes and soups. Whole cloves add wonderful flavor to mulled wines and ciders, and the spice of choice for baking ham. Cloves also have natural preservative qualities in pickling solutions and oils.

Club Steak - A rib steak from the top portion of the short loin. The higher the rib, the larger the steak. Size depends on thickness of cut also, and may serve one or two very tender and juicy.

Cocada - [Spanish] coconut dessert.

Cochineal - [Spanish] small red bug crushed to make red food coloring.

Cochinita - [Spanish] small pig.

Cocido - [Spanish] cooked boiled meaty beef and vegetable soup.

Cocina - [koh-SEE-nah] [Spanish] kitchen.

Cock-a-Leekie - A thick Scottish soup made with chicken, leeks, and barley. Modern versions have lightened up this soup by using a chicken broth garnished with leeks and barley.

Cockles - [Great Britain] Clams or donax. Any of various bivalve mollusks having a shell closed by two muscles at opposite ends.

Coco - [Spanish] coconut.

Cocoa nibs - Fermented, dried, roasted and crushed cacao bean. Chocolate that has not been ground and mixed with sugar yet. Buy in a health food or gourmet grocery store

Cocoa powder - The dried powder formed from chocolate liquor after the cocoa butter has been removed. This mixture is then dried and ground into a fine powder. Dutch process cocoa has been treated with alkali to give a darker appearance and less bitter taste. Instant cocoa has sugar, milk solids, and other flavorings and emulsifiers added to it which aides it to dissolve more readily.

Coconut - The fruit of the coconut palm has several layers. A deep tan husk encases a hard, dark brown, hairy shell. Beneath the shell is a thin, brown skin, under which lies a layer of creamy coconut meat that surrounds a milky, sweet, opaque juice. Coconut meat is available sweetened or unsweetened, shredded or flaked, moist or frozen. Introduced to Latin America centuries ago.

Coconut milk - Canned or frozen. Do not confuse with cream of coconut. This is not the liquid that is found in the center of coconuts, but a thick liquid made by steeping fresh grated coconut in hot water. The hot water helps to extract the fat from the coconut meat, which carries so much of this flavor. Found in Oriental or fancy supermarkets. Known as narialka ka dooth in India, santen in Indonesia and Malaysia. Best made from fresh coconuts: Grate the flesh of 1 coconut into a bowl, pour on 600 ml/1 pint/2-1/2 cups boiling water, then leave to stand for about 30 minutes. Squeeze the flesh, then strain before using. This quantity will make a thick coconut milk, add more or less water as required. Desiccated (shredded) coconut can be used instead of fresh coconut: Use 350g/12 ounces/4 cups to 600 ml/1 pint/2 1/2 cups boiling water. Use freshly made coconut milk within 24 hours. Canned coconut milk is also available.

Cocotte - [French] A small, straight sided metal, earthenware or porcelain baking dish with a cover, used for cooking eggs (in a pan of hot water) in the oven.

Cod - Most commonly sold as skinless fillets, a mild-tasting, snow-white fish has lean flesh with a big flake. Some substitutes include haddock, hake, and pollock. Note that scrod is a market term for cod, not a separate species.

Coddled eggs - Eggs which have been placed in rapidly boiling water and at once allowed to stand undisturbed for 10 to 15 minutes, in the cooling water results in the whites and the yolks having the same degree of jellied firmness.

Coddling - [French] cooking process whereby food is slowly simmered in water.

Codorniz - [Spanish] quail.

Coeur a la Creme - Coeur e la Creme - Meaning "the heart of the cream", this is a soft cheese dessert where the mixture is drained in a mold to help it set. The cheese is then turned out onto a platter and served with fruit and bread. Alternate versions use mixtures of ricotta and cream cheese and flavored with liquor and citrus juice. This is then molded and served with a berry coulis.

Cognac - A fine brandy produced in and around the town of Cognac in western France.

Cointreau - a clear, mildly bitter, brandy based liqueur, flavored with the peel of sour and sweet oranges from Curacao and Spain. It is considered to be a high quality Triple Sec.

Cojack - American cheese that blends Colby Cheddar and Monterey Jack.

Colache - [Spanish] stew made of squash and other vegetables.

Colados - [Spanish] strained sieved.

Colander - Cooking utensil comprised of perforated metal or plastic and shaped as a basket. Primarily used for draining away spent or reserved liquids.

Collard greens - One of a variety of "greens" with a firm leaf and sharp flavor somewhere between cabbage or kale and turnip greens, fellow members of the mustard family. Depending on their age, they can be mild and sweet or mustardy. Collards do not form a head but grow on stalks that are too tough to eat.

Collop - A piece of meat tenderized by beating or slicing thinly.

Colombo - A West Indian stew seasoned with a spice mixture of the same name. This is similar to curry powder, containing coriander, chiles, cinnamon, nutmeg, saffron, and garlic. The stew may contain pork, chicken, or fish. Vegetables are cooked in the stew and rice and beans are served on the side.

Comal - [Spanish] flat iron griddle for cooking tortillas.

Comida - [Spanish] food main meal of the day.

Comino - [Spanish] cumin powerful spice used in traditional Southwest cooking seeds from pods of the indigenous and plentiful Southwestern cumin plant can be purchased whole or ground the predominant flavor in dishes such as chili con carne.

Compote - [French] Dried and fresh fruit cooked with sugar to a jam like consistency, brief enough to allow the fruit to retain their individual identity. A deep bowl, often stemmed, from which such desserts and other foods are served.

Compound butter - Butter creamed with herbs, spices, garlic, wine, or whatever you wish. Perfect for finishing sauces or jazzing up just about any grilled or broiled foods.

Compound Chocolate - Compound chocolate is a product made from a combination of cocoa, vegetable fat, and sweeteners. It is used as a lower-cost alternative to true chocolate, as it uses less-expensive hard vegetable fats such as coconut oil or palm kernel oil in place of the more expensive cocoa butter. It may also be known as "compound coating" or "chocolatey coating" when used as a coating for candy.

Con - [Spanish] with.

Concasse - [French] term for chopping a vegetable coarsely. This is used most often when referring to chopped tomatoes or other soft foods.

Conch - These "univalve" mollusks (their shells do not open and close) can be as large as a foot long. Also called whelk. The only preparation before cooking is cutting off the operculum, the shell-like covering that protects the meat.

Conchas - Mexican sweet-topped buns named for the seashell design drawn in the topping.

Conchiglie - Large shell shaped pasta noodles. These are often stuffed and baked au gratin. Small shells are called conchigliette.

Conde - [French] dessert made with rice pastry biscuits topped with icing and glazed in the oven.

Condensed milk - Preserved milk in which much of the water content is evaporated and sugar is added. It is primarily utilized in sweets and confectionery making. Condensed milk is also used in iced drinks because its high sugar content will not readily freeze in the beverage.

Condiment(s) - Pickled or spicy food seasonings, often pungent, used to bring out the flavor of foods. Sauces, relishes, etc., to add to food at the table.

Confectioners' sugar - This powdered sugar is best in recipes that will not be cooked at all, such as frostings, because it dissolves better than regular granulated sugar it is also good sprinkled on top of baked goods. It is also known as 10X sugar. Known in Great Britain as "icing sugar."

Confit - This is a preparation for meat to preserve it for long periods of time when fresh meat would be scarce. The meat is first salted to remove moisture. It is then cooked at the lowest of simmers, submerged in fat, until the meat is buttery tender. After the meat is cooled, it is stored in crocks and covered with the fat to prevent exposure to air. The whole crock is stored to help age the meat. During this aging period the meat develops a new flavor, completely different from its original state. When ready to eat, the meat is fried in a skillet or grilled until the skin is crisp and the meat is warmed through. Duck confit was once served with potatoes fried in the same duck fat as the confit. This practice is less popular now, but good companions to the confit are lentils or bitter green salads to balance the richness of the meat. Fatty meats such as duck, goose, and pork work best in confit. Confit is an indispensable component in cassoulet.

Conserva - [Spanish] conserve preserves made from fruit and usually includes nuts.

Conserve - [French] whole fruit preserved by boiling with sugar and used like jam.

Consomme - A very rich meat or chicken stock (bouillon) which has been clarified, usually with egg white also a clear bouillon which will jell when cold.

Coppa - The loin or shoulder of pork that is cured, cooked and dried. It is served thinly sliced for antipasto or on sandwiches or pizza.

Coq au Vin - [French] a chicken stew flavored with red wine, bacon, mushrooms, and pearl onions.

Coquille - [French] scallop shell-shaped oven proof dish used to serve fish, shellfish or poultry.

Coquilles St. Jacques - [French] scallops.

Coquito - tropical eggnog.

Cordero - [Spanish] lamb.

Cordial - A synonym for liqueur. In Great Britain, New Zealand and Australia, a thick syrup (which may or may not contain real fruit) which is diluted to give a non-alcoholic fruit drink.

Cordon Bleu - [French] highly qualified cook. According to legend, King Louis XV of France once awarded a blue ribbon to a female chef who had prepared an outstanding meal (United States) chicken stuffed with ham and white sauce.

Coriander - The small, tan, nutty-tasting seeds (actually the dried, ripe fruit) of the herb cilantro, or Chinese parsley. May be purchased as whole dried seeds or ground fragrant and aromatic, with hints of caraway, lemon and sage seeds have been found in Egyptian toms and date back to at least 960 B.C. commonly used whole in pickling spices or toasted and ground for use in dry rubs, salsas and soups often paired with ground cumin to create a blend of flavors that adds a distinctive character to AmeriMex recipes.

Corn husks - Dried corn husks, softened by soaking, and used to wrap food before it is cooked (such as tamales) will keep indefinitely, but should be used within a day or two of being rehydrated.

Corned beef - Brined beef, usually from the brisket if you have a choice, buy the flank cut rather than the point cut.

Cornichon - Crisp little pickles, intensely sour.

Cornmeal or corn meal - Comes white, yellow or blue, either coarsely or finely ground Usually enriched with thiamine, niacin, riboflavin and iron. never to be used as a replacement for Masa Harina. Also known as maize.

Corn syrup - Dextrose, maltose, or glucose obtained by converting starch with acids. This syrup is used in baking, primarily to prevent the crystallization of sugar. Light corn syrup is clear, colorless and mild in flavor. Dark corn syrup is dark and distinctively flavorful.

Cornflour - [Great Britain] Cornstarch.

Cornstarch - A white, powdery, thickening agent for sauces, puddings and gravies. One tablespoon is the equivalent of 2 tablespoons of flour in thickening power and makes a clearer sauce.

Corunda - [Spanish] small cushion-shaped tamal wrapped in a corn husk.

Cote - [French] chop or rib.

Cotechino - A fresh pork sausage with a very fine consistency and delicate flavor. It contains a small amount of ground pork rind, coteca in Italian, thus giving it the name. It is a large sausage, about 3 x 9 inches, used in stews and Pasta e Fagioli.

Cotija (a ejo) - Aged cheese with dry, crumbly texture has a salty, sharp flavor does not melt, so it is used mainly for toppings for tacos, beans and enchiladas is added to the dish just before serving feta cheese may be substituted, but drain and blot with paper towels before you crumble it.

Coulibiac - A Russian pie made with alternating layers of salmon, hard cooked eggs, rice, mushroom duxelle, and vesiga. Vesiga is the spinal marrow of sturgeon and has all but disappeared from commercial markets. The dough used to wrap the pie can be pate brisee, puff pastry, or brioche dough. Crepes are often layered in the bottom of the pie.

Coulis - [French] a puree of fruit or vegetables, used as a sauce or flavoring agent to other sauces or soups. As sauces, they are thinned down just enough to reach the proper consistency, but not so much as to alter the intense flavor of the puree.

Coupe - [French] a dish of ice cream.

Courgette - [French] zucchini.

Court Bouillon - A well-seasoned cooking liquor, sometimes made with broth, used to poach fish and shellfish. Court-bouillons mainly consist of wine, water, herbs, and onion. Vinegar is sometimes added to the bouillon to help set the fish and enhance its white color. Truite au bleu is a perfect example of this technique. Court bouillon is also a thick fish stew or soup served over rice in Cajun/Creole cuisine.

Couscous - [North African] a fine-grained semolina pasta used primarily in Moroccan cuisine. Made from semolina (which itself is a flour made from Durum wheat). The name couscous also refers to the famous Maghreb dish in which semolina or cracked wheat is steamed in the perforated top part of a special pot called a couscoussiere, while chunks of meat (usually chicken or lamb), various vegetables, chickpeas and raisins simmer in the bottom part. The cooked semolina is heaped onto a large platter, with the meats and vegetables placed on top. Diners use chunks of bread to scoop the couscous from the platter.

Cow grease - Cowboy term for real butter.

Cracklings (Cracklins) - The crispy residue of skin, usually of pork, remaining after the fat is rendered. Or the rind left when most of the fat of a roast has been melted off. Commonly made from pork, duck, and goose it is used in salads, stuffing, and seasonings.

Cranberry - There are several species of cranberry, but we're most accustomed to the large, tart ones that are native to North America. Too hard and tart to eat out of hand, cranberries must be cooked or chopped to make a relish. Fresh they may be stored refrigerated for weeks or frozen they may be stored for months.

Cranberry bean - Known in Italy as borlotti, these cream-colored beans with red streaks turn pinkish brown when cooked. They have a nutty flavor and can be substituted for red or white beans in many recipes.

Crawfish (Crayfish) - A small fresh water crustacean related to the lobster.

Crawfish fat - The head of the crawfish contains an organ called the "hepatapancreas" which contains fat and is very rich in flavor. Many people call this the "fat" of the crawfish. However, crawfish actually contain very little fat.

Cream - The fat portion of milk that rises to the top when milk has not been homogenized. Cream is defined by its varying amounts of butterfat content. Half and half cream is a mixture of milk and cream, resulting in a butterfat content of 10 to 12%. Sour cream and light cream have a butterfat content of 18-40%. Heavy cream will have no less than 30% butterfat, averages around 36%, and will go as high as 40%.

Cream cheese - This tangy, smooth, spreadable cheese is as delicious in dips, frostings, and all kind of desserts as it is spread on bagels. Lower fat versions are available, but the texture is usually more gummy than creamy.

Cream of coconut - thick sweetened "milk" extracted from coconut flesh and used in desserts and drinks such as pi a colada Coco Lopez is the most widely available brand.

Cream of tartar - The common name for potassium hydrogen tartrate, an acid salt that has a number of uses in cooking. Its form is a fine white powder.

Cream of tartar is obtained when tartaric acid is half neutralized with potassium hydroxide, transforming it into a salt. Grapes are the only significant natural source of tartaric acid, and cream of tartar is a obtained from sediment produced in the process of making wine.

Cream of tartar is best known in our kitchens for helping stabilize and give more volume to beaten egg whites. It is the acidic ingredient in some brands of baking powder. It is also used to produce a creamier texture in sugary desserts such as candy and frosting. It is used commercially in some soft drinks, candies, bakery products, gelatin desserts, and photography products. Cream of tartar can also be used to clean brass and copper cookware.

If you are beating eggs whites and don't have cream of tartar, you can substitute white vinegar (in the same ratio as cream of tartar, generally 1/8 teaspoon per egg white).

If cream of tartar is used along with baking soda in a cake or cookie, omit both and use baking powder instead. If it calls for baking soda and cream of tartar, just use baking powder.

Normally, when cream of tartar is used in a cookie, it is used together with baking soda. The two of them combined work like double-acting baking powder. When substituting for cream of tartar, you must also substitute for the baking soda. If your recipe calls for baking soda and cream of tartar, just use baking powder.

One teaspoon baking powder is equivalent to 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 5/8 teaspoon cream of tartar. If there is additional baking soda that does not fit into the equation, simply add it to the batter.

Crema - [Spanish] cream thickened and soured cream, the equivalent of cr me fr iche usually a combination of whipping cream and buttermilk used as a garnish, and it melts easily sour cream may be substituted, but it is not as rich and is more acidic.

Creme - [French] Applied to fresh cream, butter and custard creams, and thick creamy soups.

Creme Anglaise - This is a custard made of milk and eggs. It is used both as a sauce for desserts and as a base for mousses.

Creme Brulee - [French] cream custard with caramelized topping.

Creme Caramel - Like the Spanish flan, this is a baked custard that is flavored with caramel. When the dish is inverted, the caramel creates a sauce for the dessert.

Creme Fraiche - A naturally thickened fresh cream that has a sharp, tangy flavor and rich texture. This is an expensive item to buy, but a good substitute can be made by mixing heavy cream with uncultured buttermilk and allowed to stand, well covered, in a tepid place until thickened.

Creme Patisserie - This is a thick pastry cream made of milk, eggs, and flour. Other versions of this use all or a portion of cornstarch.

Cremini - This domesticated brown mushroom has much better flavor than button mushrooms, but is usually more expensive as a result.

Creole - Designating a type of New Orleans cookery dishes a la Creole are often cooked with tomatoes and okra.

Creosote - desert bush used as medicine and for tea.

Crepas - [Spanish] crepes.

Crepaze - A cake made of crepes layered with vegetables, cheese, or ham. The cake is then baked to blend the flavors and help set it so that it may be cut into wedges.

Crepe - A very thin delicate French pancake used for sweet and savory fillings.

Crepes Suzette - [French] pancakes cooked in orange sauce and flamed in liqueur.

Crepinette - A small sausage patty wrapped in caul fat. They are filled with ground pork, veal, or poultry and fried or grilled. Some are shaped into balls. You may also use cooked meat or vegetables to flavor a forcemeat in the crepinette.

Crespelle - An Italian pancake, similar to a crepe, used in place of pasta in preparations of dishes like manicotti and cannelloni.

Crevettes - [French] shrimps.

Crimping - Process of making a decorative border on pie crusts gashing fresh skate, then soaking it in cold water and vinegar before cooking, in order to firm the flesh.

Croissant - A rich crescent-shaped flaky roll whose dough includes some puff paste.

Croquembouche - Means "crunch in the mouth." A grand dessert made up of cream puffs that are dipped in caramel and assembled into a large pyramid shape. The whole dessert is then brushed with more caramel and elaborately decorated. Nougat cut into decorative shapes adorns the croquembourhe. Guests pluck off the puffs with their fingers.

Croque-Monsieur - The French version of a grilled ham and cheese sandwich with Gruyere cheese.

Croquette - A mixture of chopped or minced food, shaped as a cone or ball, coated with egg and crumbs and deep-fried. Vegetables, fish, or meat may be used in croquettes.

Croustade - A light pastry shell.

Crostini - Toasted bread slices which are brushed with olive oil and served with tomatoes, pumate, cheese, chicken liver mousse, bean puree, or tapenade. These are the Italian version of canapes.

Croutes - [French] pastry covering meat, fish and vegetables slices of bread or brioche, spread with butter or sauce, and baked until crisp.

Crouton - Bread that is cut into smaller pieces and toasted or fried until crisp. Most often used in soups, salads and hors d'oeuvres.

Crown roast - A ring of rib chops, usually lamb or pork, which is roasted in one piece, the center filled with a mixture of chopped meat and vegetables.

Crudites - A selection of raw vegetables served with a dip.

Crudo - [Spanish] raw.

Crullers - Pastry strips or twists, fried in deep fat.

Crumpets - Disk-shaped yeast muffins, usually served toasted.

Crystallized ginger - Crystallized ginger is candied ginger it has been cooked in a sugar syrup and coated with a coarse sugar. Available in Asian markets and specialty food shops.

Cubanelle chile pepper - A fresh mild and slightly sweet light green to yellow chile, measuring 4 to 5 inches long. Very close in flavor to a real Hungarian pepper. Found in good supermarkets or in Caribbean markets. May substitute with fresh green Anaheim pepper, but these are a bit hotter. Good for roasting and cutting into rajas, dicing and using raw in colorful salsas and pickling for escabeches Anaheims may be substituted if unavailable.

Cube steak - A beef cut, usually top round or top sirloin, which is tenderized by a "cubing" process involving a pounding with a special mallet or being run through a "cubing" machine.

Cuchara - [Spanish] spoon.

Cucharada - [Spanish] tablespoon.

Cucharadita - [Spanish] teaspoon.

Cuchillo - [Spanish] knife.

Cucumbers - These quenching vegetables - about 96% water - are cucurbitas, part of a huge family that includes squashes.

Cuisse - [French] thigh or leg.

Culatello - The heart of the prosciutto.

Cumberland Sauce - An English sauce used for ham and game. The sauce is made of currant jelly mixed with lemon and orange juice and port wine.

Cumin - Often labeled under its Spanish name, comino introduced to the Americas by settlers of Portuguese and Spanish origin from a plant that is a member of the carrot family seeds are crescent shaped and resemble fuzzy caraway seeds cumin pairs wonderfully with dried chiles and the slow-cooked flavors of the Southwest best used toasted and ground as needed some recipes call for the whole seeds.

Cuaresmeno - [Spanish] Lenten another name for chile jalapeno.

Cuarto - [Spanish] quart.

Curd - Semi-solid part of milk, produced by souring process.

Curdle - Process which causes fresh milk or a sauce to separate into solids and liquids by overheating or by adding acid common cooking error whereby the addition of creamed butter and sugar in a cake recipe is separated due to adding eggs too quickly.

Cure - Process of preserving fish or meat by drying, salting or smoking.

Curing salt - A salt that has nitrates added and is used as a preservative in sausage making. Available in some supermarkets and specialty markets.

Currant - Tiny, tart, grape-like berries are red, black, or white when fresh. More frequently recipes call for dried currants - which are not currants at all, but the dried, seedless zante grape. In cooking, dried currants are most often used in baked goods. May substitute with raisins in a pinch.

Curry powder - This is a mix of spices that we have come to know of by the Indian variety found in stores. Yet this is a mixture that is unique to everyone's kitchen. They may be mild with spices like cumin, fennel, and coriander or heated up a bit with chilies and pepper or fragrant with cinnamon and saffron. All of these are considered curry powders and all of them have distinctly different applications.

Curtidas - [Spanish] marinated.

Custard - Like pudding, custard is a thick, creamy mixture of milk, sugar, and flavorings. Custard is thickened with eggs, puddings with cornstarch or flour.

Cutlet - A tender, thin, boneless cut of meat it could be part of a chicken or turkey breast, or veal, lamb, or pork, usually taken from the leg. Also used for minced meats shaped like chops.

Cuttlefish - A cousin to the squid, that is also prized for its ink sac as well as its flesh. It is rounder, thicker and chewier.


Watch the video: Daring Cooks Challenge January 2011 - Cassoulet and Chicken Confit (January 2022).